Statistics Chapter 2  Tabular and Graphical Methods
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What are the ways to display qualitative data?
 Frequency Distribution
 Relative frequency distribution
 Bar graph
 Pie Chart

What measurement scales apply to qualitative data?

How can you display quantitative data?
 Frequency distribution
 Relative frequency distribution
 Histogram
 Cumulative distributions

What measurement scales apply to quantitative data?

How many classes are typically in a frequency distribution?
520

How do you calculate the width of each class?
(largest data value  Smallest data value) / Number of classes

What is the class midpoint?
 The value halfway between the lower and upper class limits
 Example: 1014 (12)

What are the 4 rules of frequency distribution classes?
 Classes can not overlap
 Classes can not have breaks
 Each data item must fit into only ONE class
 Classes must have the same width

What is an openend class?
A frequency distribution class that requires only a lower class limit or an upper class limit.

What is a symmetric skew?
Near perfect bell curve

What is a left or negative skew?
Longer tail to the left on a histogram.

What is a right or positive skew on a histogram?
Longer tail to the right.

What is the difference between a histogram and a bar graph?
A histogram has no spaces between each bar.

What is a cumulative distribution?
Each value represents the frequency of the current class plus the amounts of all previous classes.

What is a crosstabulation?
 Tabular summary of 2 variables
 The variables can be qualitative or quantitative

What are the relevant percentages for crosstabulations?

What is Simpson's Paradox?
Conclusions based on aggregated data may be reversed when we look at unaggregated data.

On a scatter diagram, what does it mean when a trend line moves up from left to right?
 Both values on the x and y axis are increasing
 They have a correlation

What does it mean when a trend line moves down from left to right?
 When x increases, y decreases.
 There is still a correlation

What does it mean when there is a straight horizontal line?
The y value has no correlation to x.