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What are 3 reasons to use statistics?
 To make sense of large amounts of data
 To test hypothesis
 To make predictions

What is data?
Measurements, facts, and/or numbers

What is a dataset?
All the data collected for one study

What are data elements (or units of observation)?
Entities on which data are collected

What is a variable?
A characteristic of interest of the elements

What is an observation?
 Values of all variables for one element
 Set of measurements for one element

What are the 4 scales of measurement?
 Nominal
 Ordinal
 Interval
 Ratio

What are the characteristics of a nominal scale?
 Label or name is used
 Data do not suggest any particular order
 Example: YSU students are classified by college/school/class

What are the characteristics of an Ordinal scale?
 Nonnumeric, but order or rank is meaningful
 Example: freshman, sophomore, junior, senior

What are the characteristics of an Interval scale?
 Ordered, numeric
 Equal and fixed distances between points on the measurement scale.
 Does not have a true zero
 Example: temperature scale, SAT scores

What are the characteristics of a Ratio scale?
 Ordered, numeric, with real zero
 Ratio of two values is meaningful
 Example: income, distance, price, quantity

What scales are used for qualitative data?

What scales are used for quantitative variables?

What is crosssectional data?
 Collected at (approximately) same point in time
 Example: US imports measured in 2005 vs. China

What is time series data?
 Collected over several time periods
 Example: Weekly earnings of private nonfarm workers in 1982 dollars (accommodating inflation)

What are descriptive statistics?
 Summaries of data, which may be tabular, graphical, or numerical.
 Makes data easier to understand, more meaningful

What are tabular methods to display descriptive statistics?
 Frequency table (one variable)
 Crosstabulation (more than one variable)

What are the graphical methods ti dispaly descriptive statistics?
 Bar graph (qualitative or categorical variables)
 Histogram (quantitative variables)
 Scatter plot (two variables)

What is the purpose of Inferential Statistics?
Draw conclusions, make predictions, or infer something about the population (the whole from looking at the sample (the part)

What is the population?
Total category under consideration

What is the sample?
Subset of population for analysis

What is a parameter?
 Characteristic of population
 Example: population mean (greek u)

What is a statistic?
 Measure derived from sample data
 Example: sample mean (x bar)

What is the main difference between descriptive and inferential statistics?
Inferential is the process of using sample statistics to draw conclusions about population parameters. So, it's the interpretation from the descriptive statistics.

When do errors most commonly occur in statistics?
When collecting the data

What is a census?
Conducting a survey to collect data for the entire population

What is a sample survey?
Conducting a survey to collect data for the sample

What is data mining?
Methods for developing useful decisionmaking information from large databases

