Lifespan Nutrition Exam 1

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Lifespan Nutrition Exam 1
2013-02-02 13:56:20

Exam 1 Nutrition through life
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  1. Maltose
  2. Lactose
  3. Fructose
  4. AMDR of Carbo (CHO)
    45-65% of intake
  5. AMDR of Fiber
    • Women 21-25g
    • Men 30-38g
  6. AMDR Protein
    10-35% of intake
  7. Essential fatty acids
    • Linoleic acid (Omega-6)
    • Alpha Linolenic (Omega-3)
  8. AMDR of Lipids
    20-35% of total calories
  9. Water Soluble Vitamins
    • B-6
    • B-12
    • Thiamine
    • Niacin
    • Choline
    • Riboflavin
    • Biotin
    • Folate
    • Pantothenic Acid
    • Vitamin C
  10. Fat Soluble vitamins
    A, D, E, K
  11. Phytochemicals
    Chemicals found in plants that may affect body processes
  12. Minerals
    Calcium, Iron, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Zinc, Floride, Iodine, Copper, Manganese, Selenium, Chromium, Molybdenum, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride
  13. Principle 1
    food is a basic need of humans
  14. Principle 2
    Foods provide energy (calories), nutrients, and other substances needed for growth and health.
  15. Principle 3
    Health problems related to nutrition originate within cells
  16. Principle 4
    Poor nutrition can result from both inadequated and excessive levels of nutrient intake
  17. Principle 5
    Humans have adaptive mechanisms for managing fluctuations in food intake
  18. Principle 6
    Malnutrition can result from poor diets and from disease states, genetic factors, or combinations of these causes
  19. Principle 7
    Some groups of people are at higher risk of becoming inadequately nourished than others
  20. Principle 8
    Poor nutrition can influence the development of certain chronic diseases
  21. Principle 9
    adequacy, variety, and balance are key characteristics of a healthy diet
  22. Principle 10
    there are no "good" or "bad" foods.
  23. A nutritious eating pattern consists of
    • Variety
    • Moderation
    • Balance
    • Calorie Control
    • Adequacy
  24. Enriched means that they:
    added nutrients back in that they had taken out through processing (Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, and Iron).
  25. Dietary supplement labeling cannot ________
    Claim to treat, cure or prevent disease
  26. Life course approach
    • Diet at one stage of life affects the next
    • Disease prevention and health promotion
    • There is no one best diet for everyone
  27. Community level assessment consists of
    • Existing vital stats data
    • Opinions
    • Observations
    • Income
    • Food programs
  28. Individual-level assessment consists of:
    • Clinical/physical
    • Dietary
    • Anthropometric
    • Biomedical
  29. Nutritional Surveillance
    Continuous assessment of trends to initiate corrective measures
  30. Nutritional Monitoring
    assessment of intermittent times to detect the changes in the dietary or nutritional status of a population
  31. Largest food assistance program:
    SNAP (food stamps)
  32. Women Infants and Children (WIC)
    • USDA
    • Education/counceling
    • Food vouchers
    • Based on Nut risk and need
    • Health benefits
    • Every dollar invested save $3.13 on health costs for infants in first 2 years
  33. Healthy People 2010
    • Increase adults at healthy weight from 42 to 60%
    • Reduce obesity from 23 to 15%
    • Reduce iron deficiency in Women from 4-11% to 1-7%
    • Reduce spina bifida from 7 to 3 per 10,000 and birth defects from 1.7-1.2 per 1,000 live births
    • Increase proportion of women who get preconceptional counseling
  34. Hormones
    • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)
    • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • Luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • Estrogen
    • Progesterone
    • Testosterone
  35. Chronic Under nutrition
    Primary effect is the birth of small and frail infants who have a high likelihood of death int he first year
  36. Acute
    Associated with dramatic decline in fertility that recovers when food intake does
  37. Which type of under nutrition is more harmful for fertility?
  38. Estrogen and leptin levels ______ with high body fat
  39. Estrogen and leptin __________ when body fat is High
  40. What hormones are associated with lower fertility?
    Leptin and Estrogen
  41. What BMI's put you at risk for lower fertility?
    20 < BMI < 30
  42. What is the first line treatment for under weight women?
    Gain weight
  43. Is clomid effective in treating underweight women?
  44. True or False: Underweight men have reduced fertility
  45. What kind of diet makes you more likely to have irregular menstrual cycles?
    Plant based, low-fat deits
  46. Iron status effects preconception in what ways?
    • Lower infertility if you have adequate iron
    • Pre-pregnancy iron deficiency associated with preterm delivery and low iron in infant
    • 50% of women enter pregnancy with low iron
    • Easier to build up iron stores before pregnancy
  47. Oral Contraceptive risks
    • cholesterol changes
    • risk of blood clots
  48. Contraceptive injections
    • weight gain
    • increased levels of LDL
    • Decreased bone density
  49. Contraceptive implants
    weight gain
  50. Nutrition recommendations for preconception
    • 1. Consume 400 mcg folate/folic acid
    • 2. limit intake of Vitamin A from supplements to 5000IU/day
    • 3. Limit or omit alcohol-containing beverages
  51. Obesity and fertility in men
    hormone changes, decreased sperm count, sperm motility, oxidative stress.
  52. Obesity and fertility in women
    high estrogen and leptin, insulin resistance, oxidative stress, inflamation
  53. If you have 3 out of 5 of the following you have Metabolic Syndrome
    • Waist circ. >40" in men, >35" in women
    • Blood triglycerides >/= 150
    • HDL <40 in men, <50 in women
    • Blood pressure >/= 130/85
    • Fasting blood glucose >/=110
  54. Fertility treatment for obese women
    wt. loss of 7-22 pounds (if BMI is over 25)
  55. Hypothalamic Amenorrhea affects who?
    Usually in women engaged in intellectual professions of those expose to social stress
  56. Fixes for hypothalamic amenorrhea
    weight gains of 6-11 lbs are usually sufficient to restore fertility
  57. What is hypothalamic amenorrhea
    one of the most common causes of anovulation and loss of menstrual cycles. Related to an energy deficiency
  58. Female athlete triad
    • Amenorrhea
    • Disordered eating
    • Osteoporosis
  59. Amenorrhea
    Loss of menstrual cycle
  60. Primary therapeutic goal for anorexia nervosa:
    normalization of body weight
  61. Primary therapeutic goal for bulimia nervosa:
    normalization of eating behaviors
  62. Nutrition recomendations for type 2 diabetes in Preconception
    • Wt. loss of 7%
    • 15-20% protein
    • <30% fat
    • 50% CHO (high fiber)
    • <7% sat fat
    • little/no trans fat
    • Cholesterol <200mg
    • 14 g fiber per 1000 kcal
    • 1/2 grains whole
    • low GI foods-rich in fiber
  63. How much physical activity is needed if you have type 2 diabetes?
    150 minutes per week or an average of 21 minutes per day.
  64. Risk factors for PCOS
    • obesity
    • central fat sores
    • genetics
  65. Nutritional management of PCOS
    • increase insulin sensitivity
    • dietary modification, weight loss, and exercise
  66. What amount of weight loss is necessary for PCOS symptoms to improve?
    5-10% of initial weight
  67. How long does a PKU person have to follow the diet before they should conceive?
    4-6 months
  68. Desirable weight in newborns
    3500-4500 kg or 7lb 12 oz - 10lbs
  69. Health objectives for the nation (pregnant women)
    • Reduce anemia 29-20%
    • Reduce infant mortality from 7.6 to no more than 5 per 1000
    • reduce spina bifida 7 to 3 per 10,000
    • reduce low birth weight from 7.3-5%
    • Reduce preterm births from 9.1-7.6%
    • Increase abstinence from alcohol for preger women from 79-95%
    • Reduce the incidence of FAS
    • Increase proportion of women who gain weigh appropriately
  70. Critical Periods have irreversible effects and last how long?
    Most intense during the first 2 months after conception.
  71. SGA
    Small for gestational age
  72. dSGA
    disproportionately small for gestational age (ex. head circumference is disproportionate to body)
  73. pSGA
    proportionately small for gestational age (ex. head is small for their age but is proportionate to body).
  74. LGA
    Large for gestational age
  75. Fetal-origins hypothesis of later disease risk
    theory that exposure to adverse nutritional and other conditions during critical/sensitive periods of growth permanently affect body (makes you more likely to be sickly)
  76. Pregnancy weight status <18.5
  77. Recommended weight gain in pregnancy for underweight
  78. Recommended weight gain in pregnancy for normal weight
  79. Recommended weight gain in pregnancy for Overweight
  80. Recommended weight gain in pregnancy for Obese
    11-20 lbs
  81. Recommended weight gain in pregnancy for twin pregnancy
    25-54 lbs
  82. Prepregnancy weight status 18.5-24.9
  83. Prepregnancy weight status 25-29.9
    Over weight
  84. Prepregnancy weight status 30 or higher
  85. Rate of pregnancy weight gain should be
    • 3-5lbs in first timester
    • Gradual and consistent gains thereafter
  86. Trimester
    1/3 of the normal duration of pregnancy
  87. Recommended weight gain: 1st Trimester (0-13 wks)
    3-5 lbs
  88. Recommended weight gain: 2nd Trimester (14-26 wks.)
    1 lb per week
  89. Recommended weight gain: 3rd Trimester (27-40 wks)
    1 lb per week
  90. When is the 1st trimester?
    0-13 weeks
  91. When is the 2nd trimester?
    14-26 weeks
  92. When is the 3rd trimester?
    27-40 weeks (birth)
  93. Average weight lost at delivery
    15 pounds
  94. When is postpartum weight loss the most difficult?
    if the woman gained >45lbs or had low activity levels
  95. On average how much heavier are women who gained the recommended weight 1 yr. postpartum?
    2 pounds
  96. Energy needs for second trimester
    +340 kcal/day
  97. Energy needs for third trimester
    +452 kcal/day
  98. Pregnant women need how many CHO a day?
    175 grams/day
  99. How much protein do pregnant women need?
    additional 25g/day
  100. Essential fatty acid needs in pregnancy
    • Linoleic acid
    • Alpha linolenic acid
  101. How much water does a pregnant woman need?
    9 cups
  102. What medication can cause a vitamin A toxicity?
  103. How much vitamin D does a pregnant woman need?
    5 mcg or 200 UI
  104. How much calcium does a preg woman need?
    1000 mg
  105. How much iron does a pregnant woman absorb if she started with adequate stores?
  106. How much iron does a pregnant woman store if she started with low iron stores?
  107. How much iron does a pregnant woman store if she started with iron deficiency anemia
  108. Iodine is needed for what?
    Thyroid function, energy production, fetal brain development.
  109. Deficient Iodine can cause what?
  110. Is sodium restriction recommended during pregnancy for controlling edema or blood pressure?
  111. Obesity in pregnancy causes higher risk of what?
    • Stillbirth
    • LGA
    • Cesarean section delivery
  112. Recommendations for obesity in pregnancy.
    • variety
    • physical activity
    • appropriate weight gain
    • nonjudgmental/nondiscriminatory
  113. Pregnancy after bariatric surgery is recommended when?
    postponed 1-2 years after surgery
  114. Nutritional recommendations for hypertension problems
    • Calcium
    • Vitamin D
    • Colorful veggies and fruits
    • exercise
    • appropriate weight gain
  115. Diabetes in pregnancy causes greater risk for what?
    • higher rates of misscarriage
    • stillbirth
    • neonatal death
    • congenital anomalies
  116. What proportion of women who develop GD in a previous pregnancy will develop GD in subsequent pregnancies?
  117. Exercise recommendations for GD
    Exercise at 50-50% VO2 max
  118. Formula for VO2 max:
    220 - age * VO2 max = heartbeats/minute
  119.  CHO for GD
  120. Protein for GD
  121. Fat for GD
  122. Weight gain with twins
    • 0.5 lbs per week in 1st tri
    • 1.5 lbs per week in 2-3 tri
  123. Weight gain with triplets
    total of 50 lbs (33-34 weeks of gaining 1.5 lbs)
  124. Nutrient needs for multiple pregnancy are based on what?
    Weight gain (about 450 kcal)
  125. Pregnant women with HIV/AIDS are at higher risk for what?
    • Malabsorption (diarrhea, inflammatory response)
    • loss of calcium from bones
    • reduced immunity (higher risk of food borne illness)
  126. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum avoidance recommendation
    avoid alcohol during pregnancy
  127. How many women consume alcohol during pregnancy?
    • 12% once a month
    • 2% consume 5 or more drinks on at least one occasion
  128. FAS symptoms
    • Short nose
    • flat nasal bridges
    • thin upper lips
    • mental retardation
    • pSGA
  129. Adolescent pregnancy risks
    compete with fetus for nutrients and calories
  130. Adolescent pregnancy recomendations
    • Require extra calories
    • 1300mg calcium