SciOly RFTS Vocab

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SciOly RFTS Vocab
2013-02-02 18:22:15
vocabulary terms nReach Stars nScience Olympiad nRFTS nSciOly nSO

A list of terms helpful in studying for the Science Olympiad's Reach for the Stars Session B
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  1. Two nearby small irregular galaxies about 160,000 light years, and 200,000 light years distant, visible to the naked eye from the Southern Hemisphere
    Magellanic Clouds LMC & SMC
  2. A well-defined band on an H-R diagram on which most ✮✮✮ tend to be found, running from the top left of the diagram to the
    bottom right.
    main sequence
  3. The point where ✮✮✮ are just beginning to evolve off is the main-sequence turnoff on an H-R diagram for a cluster. If all the ✮✮✮ in a particular cluster are plotted, the lower mass ✮✮✮ will trace out the main sequence up to the point where ✮✮✮ begin to evolve off the main sequence toward the red giant branch.
    main-sequence turnoff
  4. A measure of the total amount of matter contained within an object.
  5. The dependence of the luminosity of a main-sequence ✮ on its mass. The luminosity increases roughly as the mass is raised to the third power.
    mass-luminosity relation
  6. The dependence of the radius of a main-sequence star on its mass. The radius rises roughly in proportion to the mass.
    mass-radius relation
  7. The specific galaxy to which the Sun belongs, so named because most of its visible ✮✮✮ appear overhead on a clear, dark night as a milky band of light extending across the sky
    Milky Way Galaxy
  8. The lowest point on any temperature scale; the temp at which all (non-quantum mechanical) motion ceases:
    0 Kelvin 
    -273 Celsius
    -459.7 Fahrenheit
    absolute zero
  9. A _____ galaxy is one which shows explosive activity and can emit large amounts of energy, especially from its central regions.
    active galaxy
  10. A system in which ✮✮ orbit about their common center of gravity like Sirius A & B
    • binary star system
    • Sirius A (upper right) & Sirius B (lower left)
    • More Info:
  11. Also referred to as the Planck curve
    The way in which the intensity of radiation emitted by a hot object in thermal equilibrium depends on F. The F at which the emitted intensity is  is an indication of the temp of the radiating object. 
    black-body radiation
  12.  Large, hot, bright  at the upper left end of the main sequence on the H-R diagram. Its name comes from its color & size.
    blue giant
  13. Clouds of collapsing gas and dust that did not contain enough mass to initiate core
    ☢ fusion. Because of their small size & low temp, they are extremely difficult to detect.
    brown dwarf
  14.  an evolved  that has exhausted the hydrogen fuel in its ☢ 
     powered by ☢ reactions in a hot shell around the stellar core.
     the diameter of a _____ is much larger than that of the ☼
     relatively low surface temp  glows red
    red giant star
  15. An extremely luminous and large red ✮
    red supergiant
  16. Celestial coordinate used to measure longitude on the celestial sphere. The zero point is the position of the Sun on the vernal equinox.
    right ascension
  17. Pair of quantities - right ascension & declination - similar to longitude and latitude on Earth, used to pinpoint locations of objects on the celestial sphere.
    celestial coordinates
  18. Celestial coordinate system used to measure latitude above or below the celestial equator on the celestial sphere
  19. Imaginary sphere surrounding the Earth, to which all objects in the sky were once considered to be attached.
    The projection of the Earth's equator onto the celestial sphere.
    • celestial sphere 
    • celestial equator
  20. A grouping of stars in the night sky in a recognizable pattern.
    Most of the constellations get their name from the Latin translation of one of the ancient Greek star patterns that lies within it. In more recent times, a number of additional groups were introduced by modern astronomers
    There are now __ standard configurations recognized.
    • constellation 
    • 88
  21. Any ✮ with a radius comparable to, or smaller than that of the Sun (including the Sun itself).
  22. The entire range of electromagnetic waves, named in order of increasing frequency or energy, ranges from
    radio waves 
    infrared IR
    visible [or optical] (what the eye sees)
    X ray
    gamma rays
    electromagnetic spectrum or EM spectrum