Pharmacology ch 38

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WindWell2794
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197441
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Pharmacology ch 38
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2013-02-02 16:49:59
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Pharm test
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Pharm test 2
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  1. antibiotic
    • having or pertaining to the ability to destroy or interfere with the development of a living organism
    • used most commonly to refer to antibacterial drugs
  2. antispetic
    • one of two types of topical antimicrobial agent
    • chemical that inhibits the growth and reproduction of microorganisms without necessarily killing them
    • also called static agents
  3. bactericidal antibiotics  
    antibiotics that kill bacteria
  4. bacteriostatic antibodies
    antibiotics that do not actually kill bacteria but rather inhibit their growth
  5. beta-lactam
    • designation for a broad, major class of antibiotics that include four subclasses: penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams
    • so named because the beta lactam ring that is part of the chemical structure of all drug in this class¬†
  6. Beta-lactamase
    any of a group of enzymes produced by bacteria that catalyze the chemical opening of the crucial beta-lactam ring structures in beta-lactam antibiotics
  7. beta-lactamase inhibitors
    medications combined with certain penicillin drugs to block the effect of beta-lactamase enzymes
  8. colonization
    the establishment and growth of microorganisms on the skin, open wounds, or mucous membranes, or in secretions without causing adverse clinical signs or symptoms
  9. community-associated infection
    an infection that is acquired by persons who have not been hospitalized or had a medical procedure recently (within the past year)
  10. definitive therapy
    the administration of antibiotics based on known results of culture and sensitivity testing identifying the pathogen causing infection
  11. disinfectant
    • one of two types of topical antimicrobial agent
    • a chemical applied to nonliving objects to kill microorganisms
    • also called cidal agents
  12. empiric therapy
    • the administration of antibiotics based on the practitioner's judgment of the pathogens most likely to be causing an apparent infection
    • involves the presumptive treatment of an infection to avoid treatment delay before specific culture information has been obtained
  13. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
    • an inherited disorder in which the red blood cells are partially or completely deficient in G6PD, a critical enzyme in the metabolism of glucose
    • certain medications can cause hemolytic anemia in patients with this disorder
    • example of a host factor related to drug therapy
  14. health care-associated infection
    • infection that is acquire during the course of receiving treatment for another condition in a health care facility
    • infection is not present or incubating at the time of admission
  15. host factors
    factors that are unique to the body of a particular patient that affect the patient's susceptibility to infection and response to various antibiotic drugs
  16. infections
    invasions and multiplications of microorganisms in body tissue
  17. prophylactic antibiotic therapy
    antibiotics taken before anticipated exposure to an infectious organism in an effort to prevent the development of infection
  18. pseudomembranous colitis
    • a necrotizing inflammatory bowel condition that is often associated with antibiotic therapy
    • more general term is antibiotic-associated colitis
  19. slow acetylation
    a common genetic host factor in which the rate of metabolism of certain drugs is reduced
  20. subtherapeutic
    • referring to antibiotic treatment that is ineffective in treating a given infection
    • possible causes include inappropriate drug therapy, insufficient drug dosing, and bacterial drug resistance
  21. superinfection
    • infection occurring during antimicrobial treatment for another infection, resulting from overgrowth of an organism not susceptible to the antibiotic used
    • secondary microbial infection that occurs in addition to an earlier primary infection, often used to weakening of the patient's immune system function by the first infection
  22. teratogens
    substances that can interfere with normal prenatal development and cause one or more developmental abnormalities in the fetus
  23. therapeutic
    referring to antibiotic therapy that results in sufficient concentrations of the drug in the blood or other tissues to render it effective against specific bacterial pathogens

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