Pharmacology ch 39

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Pharmacology ch 39
2013-02-02 17:16:05
Pharm test

Pharm test 2
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  1. concentration-dependent killing
    a property of some antibiotics, especially aminoglycosises, whereby achieving relatively high plasma drug concentration, even if briefly, results in the most effective bacterial kill
  2. extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs)
    • a group of beta-lactamase enzymes produced by some organisms that makes the organisms resistant to all beta-lactam antibiotics and aztreonam
    • patients infected by such organisms must be in contact isolation and proper hand washing is key for prevention 
  3. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)
    an enzyme first found in isolates of the bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae that renders the organism resistant to all carbapenem antibiotics as well as beta-lactam antibiotics and monobactams
  4. methicilin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
    • resistant to the beta-lactamase penicillin known as methicillin
    • used more commonly to refer to strains of S. aureus that are resistant to several drug classes  
  5. Microgram
    one millionth of a gram
  6. minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
    a lab measure of the lowest concentration of a drug needed to kill a certain standardized amount of bacteria
  7. multidrug-resistant organisms
    bacteria that are resistant to one or more classes of antimicrobial drugs
  8. nephrotoxicity
    toxicity to the kidneys, often drug induced and manifesting as compromised renal function
  9. ototoxicity
    toxicity to the ears, often drug induced and manifesting as varying degrees of hearing loss that is more likely to be permanent than the impaired renal function resulting from nephrotoxicity 
  10. postantibiotic effect
    • a period of continued bacterial suppression that occurs after brief exposure to certain antibiotic drug classes
    • mechanisms of this effect is uncertain
  11. synergistic effect
    drug interaction in which the bacterial killing effect of two antibiotics given together is greater than the sum of the individual effects of the same drugs given alone
  12. therapeutic drug monitoring
    • ongoing monitoring of plasma drug concentrations and dosage adjustment based on these values as well as other lab indicators such as kidney and liver function test results
    • often carried out by a pharmacist in collaboration with medical, nursing, and lab staff 
  13. time-dependent killing
    a property of most antibiotic classes whereby prolonged high plasma drug concentrations are required for effective bacterial kill
  14. vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)
    Enterococcus species that are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics and vancomycin