Random Transplant Questions

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Author:
DruschKa
ID:
197454
Filename:
Random Transplant Questions
Updated:
2013-02-02 18:14:42
Tags:
Organ Transplantation
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Description:
Good questions to know that I couldn't think of a single category to put them in
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  1. HSV 1
    lips
  2. HSV 2
    genitals
  3. HSV 3
    varicella (chickenpox)
  4. HSV 4
    EBV
  5. HSV 5
    CMV
  6. HSV 8
    Karposis Sarcoma
  7. Noninfectious causes of fevers
    • Rejection
    • Organ ischemia
    • Pulmonary Embolism
    • Deep Vein Thrombosis
    • Drug reaction (antithymocyte therapy, antibiotics)
    • Malignancy
  8. CD4 type I cells (T helper I) activates...
    CD8 T killer cells
  9. CD4 type II cells (T helper II) activates...
    B cells which produce antibodies (aka immune globulins)
  10. Explain why and when you would use plasmaphresis.

    What two medications accompany it?
    Removes the plasma portion of the blood and clears it of the antibodies that seek and destroy the transplanted organ (i.e. in ABO incompatable transplants or organs going through rejection). 

    IVIG follows plasmaphresis and replaces the antibodies that were/would have caused an immune reaction with antibodies that will not cause an anti-inflammatory or immune response effect.

    Gancyclovir is given as well due to the high risk of CMV opportunistic infection
  11. What is the difference between IgG and IgM
    IgG- (chronic infection OR immunity) second responder to antigens, small molecule

    IgM- (acute infection) first responder to antigens. LARGE molecule
  12. Name the Class I antigen loci
    • A
    • B
    • C
  13. Name the Class II antigen loci
    • DR
    • DQ
  14. Why do we not need to take into account Rhesus antigens when transplanting organs?
    Rh antigens (+/-) are not present on tissue cells

    Only blood
  15. Class I antigen loci are associated with cellular or humoral rejection?
    Class I (A, B, C) - cellular rejection
  16. Class II antigen loci are associated with cellular or humoral rejection?
    Class II (DR, DQ)- humoral rejection
  17. Explain a PRA (Panel Reactive Antibodies)

    How is the answer expressed?
    Serum from the recipient is mixed with Lymphocytes from the donor

    Identifies any antibodies that the recipient may have formed against specific HLA antigens and are poised to destroy them.

    Answer is expressed in a % (i.e. 75% = donor antibodies react against 75% of donor antigens)
  18. Explain a Cross match and how it is related to a PRA (Panel Reactive Antibodies)
    Cross match is a recipient/donor specific test. Instead of using a random group of donors, the test is run with a very real potential donor.

    Donor Lymphocytes mixed with Recipient Serum.

    "Positive Cross Match" = there was a immune reaction and this Donor/Recipient Pair will result in HYPERACUTE REJECTION
  19. What are specificities and why are they useful?
    Identified HLA antigens that a potential recipient has developed preformed antibodies to. 

    This information is put into UNOS so we don't have to do as many Cross Matches and come up with Positive Cross Match Results. Helps us to predict the result of a cross match.
  20. What is HLA tissue typing?
    Identifies an individual's antigens at each of the six major loci

    • Class I- A, B, C
    • Class II- DR, DQ, DP
  21. What is the difference between Antigen and Antibody?
    Antigen- Protein markers on the outside of cells that identify what type of cell it is (i.e. Antigens that are recognized as dangerous or Antigens that are unrecognized most likely trigger an immune response)

    Antibody- Your body makes antibodies to fight things it considers dangerous. An antibody is a small protein (aka Immunoglobulins) floats around by itself unless they attach to antigens. They identify antigens so it can be killed by the T killer cells, complement proteins, or leukocytes (aka mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and monocytes)
  22. What is an Antibody?
    Antibody- Your body makes antibodies to fight things it considers dangerous. An antibody is a small protein (aka Immunoglobulins) floats around by itself unless they attach to antigens. They identify antigens so it can be killed by the T killer cells, complement proteins, or leukocytes (aka mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and monocytes)
  23. What is an Antigen?
    Protein markers on the outside of cells that identify what type of cell it is (i.e. Antigens that are recognized as dangerous or Antigens that are unrecognized most likely trigger an immune response)
  24. Cytokines are messenger proteins.
    Name the three types of Cytokines
    • 1. Lymphokines
    • 2. Interferons
    • 3. Interleukins
  25. What are Lymphokines?
    • Produced by the lymphoctes (B and T cells)
    • Play a crucial role in stimulating and augmenting various components of the immune system
  26. What are Interferons?
    • IFN-(alpha) 
    • IFN- (beta)
    • IFN- (gamma)

    Eradicate viral infections
  27. What are Interleukins?
    Mediators of the immune response. They initiate fever.They stimulate the production of leukocytes (i.e. mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and monocytes)

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