Chapter 11

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
197457
Filename:
Chapter 11
Updated:
2013-02-02 19:55:07
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Nozzles Fire Streams Delmar Firefighter Handbook
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Chapter 11: Nozzles and Fire Streams
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  1. Absolute Pressure
    The measurements of pressure, including atmospheric pressure. measured in PSI absolute
  2. Automatic/Constant Pressure Nozzle
    nozzle with a spring mechanism built in that reacts to pressure changes and adjusts the flow and resultant reach of the nozzle
  3. Available Flow
    amount of water that can be moves to extinguish the fire, depends on the water supply, pump(s) and their capabilities, and the size and length of the hose.
  4. Bresnan Distributor
    a device used to fight fire in basements or cellars when firefighters cannot make a direct attack on the fire; has 6 or 9 solid tips or broken stream openings designed to rotate in a circular spray pattern
  5. Combination Fire Attack
    a blend of the direct and indirect fire attack methods, with firefighters applying water to both the fuel and the atmosphere of the room
  6. Combination Nozzle
    spray nozzle that is capable of providing straight stream and spray patterns, which are adjustable or variable by the operator. most commonly used nozzle
  7. Constant/Set Volume Nozzle
    nozzle with one set volume at a set pressure. forexample, 60 gpm at 100psi - the only adjustment is pattern
  8. Direct Fire Attack
    an attack on the fire made by aiming the flow of water directly at the material on fire (directly at the seat)
  9. Discharge Flow
    Total amount of water flowing from the discharge side of the pump
  10. Fire Stream
    the water or other agent as it leaves the hose and nozzle toward its objective, usually the fire
  11. Flow
    the rate or quantity of water delivered, usually measured in gpm or lpm (1gmp=3.785lpm)
  12. Fog Nozzle
    delivers either a fixed spray pattern of variable combination of straight stream and spray patterns
  13. Friction
    caused by the rubbing of materials against each other while in movement and converts or robs some of the movement energy into heat energy
  14. Friction Loss
    measurement of friction in a system such as hoseline
  15. Gauge Pressure
    measures pressure without atmospheric pressure. measured in PSI or PSIG
  16. Head Pressure
    measures the pressure of a column of water in feet. gain or loss results when water is being pumped above or below the lvl of the pump. a head of 2.31 ft = 1 psi
  17. Hydraulics
    the study of fluids at rests and in motion
  18. Indirect Fire Attack
    an attack made on interior fires by applying a fog stream into a closed room or compartment, thus converting the water into steam to extinguish the fire
  19. Needed/Required Flow
    estimate of the amount of water required to extinguish a fire in a certain time period. based on the type and amount of fuel burning
  20. Nozzle
    a tapered or constricted tube used to increase the speed or change the direction of water or other fluids
  21. Nozzle Flow
    the amount of volume of water that a nozzle will provide. measured in gpm or lpm
  22. Nozzle Pressure
    the pressure required to effectively operate a nozzle. always measured in PSI or kilopascals
  23. Nozzle Reach
    the distance the water will travel after leaving the nozzle.
  24. Nozzle Reaction
    the force that makes the nozzle move in the opposite direction of the water flow.
  25. Piercing Nozzle
    originally designed to penetrate the skin of aircraft and now has been modified to pierce through building walls and floors
  26. Pump Operator
    generic term to describe the person responsible for operating a fire apparatus pump.
  27. Solid Stream Nozzles
    type of nozzle that delivers an unbroken or solid stream of water to the fire. AKA solid tip, straight bore, or smooth bore
  28. Straight Stream
    nozzle pattern that creates a hollow stream, similar in shape to solid stream pattern, but the straight stream pattern must pass around the baffle of the nozzle.
  29. Stream Shape
    the arrangement or configuration of the water or other agent droplets as they leave the nozzle
  30. Vacuum (Negative) Pressure
    the measurement of the pressure less than atmospheric pressure, which is usually read in inches of mercury (in. Hg or mm Hg) on a compound gauge
  31. Variable, Adjustable, or Selectable Gallonage Nozzle
    nozzle that allows the nozzleperson to select the flow, with usually 2 or 3 choices, and the pattern
  32. Velocity Pressure
    The forward pressure of water as it leaves an opening
  33. Water Curtain Nozzle
    designed to spray water to protect exposures against heat by wetting the exposure's surface
  34. 4 Elements That Affect Fire Stream
    • pump
    • water
    • hose
    • nozzle
  35. Breakover
    when water leaving the nozzle starts to fall over and break apart
  36. Handlines use tips from ___ to ___ inches at ___ PSI.
    3/4 to 1 1/4 inches at 50 PSI
  37. Masterstreams use tips sizes of ___ inches and larger at ___ PSI
    1 1/4 inches at 80 PSI
  38. Why are small lines popular to use?
    • ease of mobility
    • number of personnel required to operate
    • their ability to extinguish one to three typical rooms of fire with their flow
  39. The method of stream application or fire attack depends on what?
    • the fire's fuel
    • the fire's location
    • suppression equipment of the FD
  40. When should you never use an indirect fire attack?
    when there is a possibility of people in the room
  41. 1 cubic foot of water = ____ cubic feet of steam at 212F
    1,700
  42. Effective fire streams will these noticeable results when applied to a fire.
    • heat reduction
    • flame reduction
    • smoke reduction
    • fire location becomes tenable
  43. What is the equation for engine pressure (also called pump discharge pressure)?
    EP=NP+FL+/-E+SA

    engine pressure = nozzle pressure + friction loss +/- elevation + special appliances
  44. Nozzle pressure for smooth bore handline
    50 PSI (345 kPa)
  45. nozzle pressure for fog handline
    • normal:100 PSI (690kPa)
    • mid: 75 (517 kPa)
    • low: 50 (345 kPa)
  46. nozzle pressure for smooth bore master stream
    80 PSI (552 kPa)
  47. nozzle pressure for fog master stream
    100 PSI (690 kPa)
  48. What is the equation for nozzle reaction on a smooth bore nozzle?
    NR=1.57xD2xNP

    Nozzle reaction = 1.57 x diameter of nozzle tip in inches, squared x nozzle pressure
  49. What is the equation for nozzle reaction on a fog nozzle?
    NR=gpm X the square root of nozzle pressure X .0505
  50. What is the equation for friction loss?
    FL = Q2 x C x L

    Friction loss = quantity of water in hundreds of gallons per minute X friction loss coefficient for the diameter of the hose X length of the hose is hundreds of feet
  51. Coefficient Value for 1 1/2 inch hose
    24
  52. Coefficient Value for 1 3/4 inch hose
    15.5
  53. Coefficient Value for 2 inch hose
    8
  54. Coefficient Value for 2 1/2 inch hose
    2
  55. Coefficient Value for 3 inch hose with 2 1/2 inch couplings
    0.8
  56. Coefficient Value for 4 inch hose
    0.2
  57. Coefficient Value for 5 inch hose
    0.08
  58. Coefficient Value for 6 inch hose
    0.05
  59. What is normally the cause of ineffective fire streams?
    improper pump or nozzle operations
  60. Elevation is usually rounded to ___ PSI per foot or ___ PSI per floor or 10 feet for practical fireground purposes.
    • 0.5
    • 5

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