DMV PA - CDL General Knowledge Text Book Questions (And Answers)

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Tibrious
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1975
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DMV PA - CDL General Knowledge Text Book Questions (And Answers)
Updated:
2009-12-02 05:03:33
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Pennsylvania Department of Motor Vehicles; DMV; Commercial Drivers License; CDL; General Knowledge Test; Textbook
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Test Questions (and answers,) for the General Knowledge portion of the Commercial Drivers License Exam of Pennsylvania, but taken directly from the Commercial Drivers Manual.
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  1. 1. What is the most important reason for doing a vehicle inspection?
    Safety is the most important reason you inspect your vehicle. Safety for yourself and for other road users.

    (2-1)
  2. 2. What things should you check during a trip?
    • DURING A TRIP
    • For safety you should:

    *Watch gauges for signs of trouble.

    *Use your senses to check for problems (look, listen, smell, feel).

    *Check critical items when you stop:

    -Tires, wheels and rims.

    -Brakes.

    -Lights and reflectors.

    -Brake and electrical connections to trailer.

    -Trailer coupling devices.

    -Cargo securement devices.

    (Page 2-1)
  3. 3. Name some key steering system parts.
    1. Steering Arms

    2. Steering Wheel

    3. Steering Wheel Shaft

    4. Tie Rod

    5. Spindle

    6. Steering Ring Knuckle

    7. Drag Link

    8. Pitman Arm

    • 9. Steering Gear Box

    (Page 2-2)
  4. 4. Name some suspension system defects.
    1. Spring hangers (figure 2-2) that allow movement of axle from proper position.

    2. Cracked or broken spring hangers.

    3. Missing or broken leaves in any leaf spring. If one fourth or more are missing, it will put the vehicle "our of service" but any defect could be dangerous (figure 2-3).

    4. Broken leaves in a multi-leaf spring or leaves that have shifted so they might hit a tire or other part.

    5. Leaking shock absorbers (figure 2-4).

    6. Torque and rod or arm, U-bolts, spring hangers, or other axle positioning parts that are cracked, damaged, or missing (figure 2-2).

    7. Air suspension systems that are damaged and/or leaking (figure 2-4).

    8. Any loose, cracked, broken, or missing frame members.








    (Page 2-3)
  5. 5. What three kinds of emergency equipment must you have?
    • 1. Fire extinguisher(s).
    • 2. Spare electrical fuses (unless equipped with circuit breakers).
    • 3. Warning devices for parked vehicles (for example, three reflective warning triangles).

    (Page 2-4)
  6. 6. What is the minimum tread depth for front tires?
    You need at least 4/32 inch tread depth in every major groove on front tires.

    (Page 2-2)
  7. 7. What is the minimum tread depth for other tires?
    You need 2/32 inch (tread depth) on other tires.

    (Page 2-2)
  8. 8. Name some things you should check on the front of your vehicle during the walk-around inspection.
    1. Go to front of vehicle and check that low beams are on and both of the 4-way flashers are working.

    2. Push dimmer switch and check that high beams work.

    3. Turn off headlights and 4-way, hazard warning flashers.

    4. Turn on parking, clearance, side-marker and identification lights.

    5. Turn on right turn signal, and start walk-around inspection.

    (Page 2-6)
  9. 9. What should wheel bearing seals be checked for?
    Right Rear

    • Wheel bearing/seals not leaking.

    (Page 2-8)
  10. 10. How many red reflective triangles should you carry?
    • Check Emergency Equipment
    • - Three (3) red reflective triangles.

    (Page 2-6)
  11. 11. How do you test hydraulic breaks for leaks?
    STEP 7:START THE ENGINE AND CHECK BRAKE SYSTEM

    Test For Hydraulic Leaks

    If the vehicle has hydraulic brakes, pump the brake pedal three times. Then apply firm pressure to the pedal and hold for five seconds. The pedal should not move. If it does, there may be a leak or other problem. Get it fixed before driving.

    (Page 2-9)
  12. 12. Why put the starter switch key in your pocket during the pre-trip inspection?
    Because one would not use the starter switch key until later steps (such as "STEP 3: START ENGINE AND INSPECT INSIDE THE CAB (Page 2-5)" in the pre-trip inspection process, thereby violating protocol and possibly failing the pre-trip inspection test. It would also be a good idea to put the starter switch key in your pocket so that you would know exactly where to find it when you would need to use it according to protocol.
  13. 13. Why should you back toward the driver's side?
    • Back And Turn Toward The Driver's Side
    • Back to the driver's side so you can see better. Backing toward the right side is very dangerous because you can't see as well. If you back and turn toward the driver's side, you can watch the rear of your vehicle by looking out the side window. Use driver-side backing–even if it means going around the block to put your vehicle in this position. The added safety is worth it.

    (Page 2-12)
  14. 14. What is a pull-up?
    • Pull Forward
    • When backing a trailer, make pull-ups to re-position your vehicle as needed.

    (Page 2-13)

    In my own words: A pull-up is another word for "Pull Forward" which is what a truck driver does to reposition his/her vehicle while backing up his/her trailer.

    Example (In my own words): While parallel parking, the instructor noticed that the student had to execute many pull-ups before finally fitting his vehicle and trailer into the alotted parking space.
  15. 15. If stopped on a hill, how can you start moving without rolling back?
    • ACCELERATING
    • Don't roll back when you start. You may hit someone behind you. Partly engage the clutch before you take your right foot off the brake. Put on the parking brake whenever necessary to keep from rolling back. Release the parking brake only when you have applied enough engine power to keep from rolling back. On a tractor-trailer equipped with a trailer brake hand valve, the hand valve can be applied to keep from rolling back.

    (Page 2-11)
  16. 16. When backing, why is it important to use a helper?
    Use A Helper

    Use a helper when you can. There are blind spots you can't see. That's why a helper is important.

    The helper should stand near the back of your vehicle where you can see the helper. Before you begin backing, work out a set of hand signals that you both understand. Agree on a signal for "stop."

    (Page 2-12)
  17. 17. What's the most important hand signal that you and the helper should agree on?
    • The word "Stop."
    • (Page 2-12)
  18. 18. What are two (2) special conditions where you should downshift?
    Special conditions where you should downshift are:

    Before Starting Down A Hill

    Slow down and shift down to a speed that you can control without using the brakes hard. Otherwise, the brakes can overheat and lose their braking power. Downshift before starting down the hill. Make sure you are in a low enough gear, usually lower than the gear required to climb the same hill.

    Before Entering A Curve

    Slow down to a safe speed, and downshift to the right gear before entering the curve. This lets you use some power through the curve to help the vehicle be more stable while turning. It also lets you speed up as soon as you are out of the curve.

    (Page 2-14)
  19. 19. When should you downshift automatic transmissions?
    AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSIONS

    Some vehicles have automatic transmissions. You can select a low range to get greater engine braking when going down grades. The lower ranges prevent the transmission from shifting up beyond the selected gear (unless the governor RPM is exceeded). It is very important to use this braking effect when going down grades.

    (Page 2-14)
  20. 20. Retarders keep you from skidding when the road is slippery. True or False?
    False;

    Quite the opposite, as explained here:

    Caution: When your drive wheels have poor traction, the retarder may cause them to skid. Therefore, you should turn the retarder off whenever the road is wet, icy, or snow covered.

    Retarders, as explained, serve the following purpose:

    Retarders help slow a vehicle, reducing the need for using your brakes. They reduce brake wear and give you another way to slow down.

    (Page 2-15/14)
  21. 21. What are the two ways to know when to shift?
    Downshifting, like upshifting, requires knowing when to shift. Use either the tachometer or the speedometer and downshift at the right RPM or road speed.

    Special conditions where you should downshift are:

    • Before Starting Down A Hill
    • Slow down and shift down to a speed that you can control without using the brakes hard.
    • Otherwise, the brakes can overheat and lose their braking power. Downshift before starting
    • down the hill. Make sure you are in a low enough gear, usually lower than the gear required to
    • climb the same hill.

    Before Entering A Curve

    • Slow down to a safe speed, and downshift to the right gear before entering the curve. This lets
    • you use some power through the curve to help the vehicle be more stable while turning. It also
    • lets you speed up as soon as you are out of the curve.

    (Page 2-14)
  22. 22. Why should you be in the proper gear before starting down a hill?
    • Before Starting Down A Hill
    • Slow down and shift down to a speed that you can control without using the brakes hard. Otherwise, the brakes can overheat and lose their braking power. Downshift before starting down the hill. Make sure you are in a low enough gear, usually lower than the gear required to climb the same hill.

    (Page 2-14)

    • SPEEDS ON DOWNGRADES
    • Your vehicle's speed will increase on downgrades because of gravity. Your most important objective is to select and maintain a speed that is not too fast for the following:

    • • Total weight of the vehicle and cargo.
    • • Length of the grade.
    • • Steepness of the grade.
    • • Road Conditions.
    • • Weather.

    (Page 2-22)
  23. 23. How far ahead does the manual say you should look?
    • HOW FAR AHEAD TO LOOK
    • Most good drivers look 12 to 15 seconds ahead. That means looking ahead the distance you will travel in 12 to 15 seconds. At lower speeds, that's about one block. At highway speeds it's about a quarter [(1/4)] of a mile. If you're not looking that far ahead, you may have to stop too quickly or make quick lane changes. Looking 12 to 15 seconds ahead doesn't mean not paying attention to things that are closer. Good drivers shift their attention back and forth, near and far.

    (Page 2-15)
  24. 24. What are the two main things to look for ahead?
    • LOOK FOR TRAFFIC
    • Look for vehicles coming onto the highway, into your lane, or turning. Watch for brake lights from slowing vehicles. By seeing these things far enough ahead, you can change your speed or change lanes if necessary to avoid a problem.

    LOOK FOR ROAD CONDITIONS

    Look for hills and curves–anything you'll have to slow or change lanes for. Pay attention to traffic signals and signs. If a light has been green for a long time, it will probably change before you get there. Start slowing down and be ready to stop. Traffic signs may alert you to road conditions where you may have to change speed.

    (Pages 2-15/16)
  25. 25. What's your most important way to see the sides and rear?
    SEEING TO THE SIDES AND REAR

    It's important to know what's going on behind and to the sides. Check your mirrors regularly. Check more often in special situations.

    MIRROR ADJUSTMENT

    Mirror adjustment should be checked prior to the start of any trip and can only be checked accurately when the trailer(s) are straight. You should check and adjust each mirror as needed.

    • REGULAR CHECKS
    • You need to make regular checks of your mirrors to be aware of traffic and to check your vehicle.

    • TRAFFIC
    • Check your mirrors for vehicles on either side and in back of you. In an emergency, you may need to know whether you can make a quick lane change. Use your mirrors to spot overtaking vehicles. There are "blind spots" that your mirrors cannot show you. Check your mirrors regularly to know where other vehicles are around you, and to see if they move into your blind spots.

    CHECK YOUR VEHICLE

    • Use the mirrors to keep an eye on your tires. It's one way to spot a tire fire. If you're carrying open cargo, you can use the mirrors to check it. Look for loose straps, ropes or chains. Watch for a flapping or ballooning tarp.
    • SPECIAL SITUATIONS
    • Special situations require more than regular mirror checks. These are lane changes, turns, merges, and tight maneuvers.

    • LANE CHANGES
    • You need to check your mirror to make sure no one is alongside you or about to pass you. Check your mirrors:

    • Before you change lanes to make sure there is enough room.

    • After you have signaled to check that no one has moved into your blind spot.

    • Right after you start the lane change to double-check that your path is clear.

    • • After you complete the lane change.
    • TURNS

    In turns, check your mirrors to make sure the rear of your vehicle will not hit anything.

    • MERGES
    • When merging, use your mirrors to make sure the gap in traffic is large enough for you to enter safely.

    TIGHT MANEUVERS

    Any time you are driving in close quarters, check your mirrors often. Make sure you have enough clearance. How To Use Mirrors Use mirrors correctly by checking them quickly and understanding what you see.

    CHECKING QUICKLY

    When you use your mirrors while driving on the road, check quickly. Look back and forth between the mirrors and the road ahead. Don't focus on the mirrors for too long. Otherwise, you will travel quite a distance without knowing what's happening ahead.

    UNDERSTANDING WHAT YOU SEE

    Many large vehicles have curved (convex, "fisheye," "spot," "bugeye") mirrors that show a wider area than flat mirrors. This is often helpful. But everything appears smaller in a convex mirror than it would if you were looking at it directly. Things also seem farther away than they really are. It's important to realize this and to allow for it.

    (Page 2-16/17)
  26. 26. What does "communicating" mean in safe driving?
    • SIGNAL YOUR INTENTIONS
    • Other drivers can't know what you are going to do until you tell them. Signaling what you intend to do is important for safety. Here are some general rules for signaling:

    • TURNS
    • There are three good rules for using turn signals:

    1. Signal early. Signal well before you turn. It is the best way to keep others from trying to pass you.

    2. Signal continuously. You need both hands on the wheel to turn safely. Don't cancel the signal until you have completed the turn.

    3. Cancel your signal. Don't forget to turn off your turn signal after you've turned (if you don't have self-canceling signals).

    LANE CHANGES

    Put your turn signal on before changing lanes. Change lanes slowly and smoothly. That way a driver you didn't see may have a chance to honk his/her horn or avoid your vehicle.

    • SLOWING DOWN
    • Warn drivers behind you when you see you'll need to slow down. A few light taps on the brake pedal–enough to flash the brake lights–should warn following drivers. Use the 4-way emergency flashers for times when you are driving very slow or are stopped. Warn other drivers in any of the following situations:

    • TROUBLE AHEAD
    • The size of your vehicle may make it hard for drivers behind you to see hazards ahead. If you see a hazard that will require slowing down, warn the drivers behind by flashing your brake lights.

    • TIGHT TURNS
    • Most car drivers don't know how slow you have to go to make a tight turn in a large vehicle. Give drivers behind you warning by braking early and slowing gradually.

    • STOPPING ON THE ROAD
    • Truck and bus drivers sometimes stop in the road to unload cargo or passengers or to stop at a railroad crossing. Warn following drivers by flashing your brake lights. Don't stop suddenly.

    • DRIVING SLOWLY
    • Drivers often do not realize how fast they are catching up to a slow vehicle until they are very close. If you must drive slowly, alert following drivers by turning on your emergency flashers if it is legal. (Laws regarding the use of flashers differ from one state to another. Check the laws of the states where you will drive.)

    DON'T DIRECT TRAFFIC

    Some drivers try to help out others by signaling when it is safe to pass. You should not do this. You could cause an accident. You could be blamed and it could cost you many thousands of dollars. COMMUNICATING YOUR PRESENCE Other drivers may not notice your vehicle even when it's in plain sight. Let them know you're there to help prevent accidents.

    • COMMUNICATING YOUR PRESENCE

    • Other drivers may not notice your vehicle even when it's in plain sight. Let them know you're there
    • to help prevent accidents.
    • WHEN PASSING

    Whenever you are about to pass a vehicle, pedestrian or bicyclist, assume they don't see you. They could suddenly move in front of you. When it is legal, tap the horn lightly or, at night, flash your lights from low to high beam and back. And drive carefully enough to avoid a crash even if they don't see or hear you.

    • WHEN IT'S HARD TO SEE
    • At dawn or dusk or in the rain or snow, you need to make yourself easier to see. If you are having trouble seeing other vehicles, other drivers will have trouble seeing you. Turn on your lights. Use the headlights, not just the identification or clearance lights. Use the low beams; high beams can bother people in the daytime the same as at night.

    WHEN PARKED AT THE SIDE OF THE ROAD

    When you pull off the road and stop, be sure to turn on the 4-way emergency flashers. This is important at night. Don't trust the taillights to give warning. Drivers have crashed into the rear of a parked vehicle because they thought it was moving normally. If you must stop on a road or the shoulder of any road, you must put out your emergency warning devices as soon as possible, but in any event within ten minutes. Place your warning devices at the following locations:

    • If you stop on a 2-lane road carrying traffic in both directions or on an undivided highway, place warning devices within ten (10) feet of the front or rear corners to mark the location of the vehicle and 100 feet behind and ahead of the vehicle, on the shoulder or in the lane you stopped in (see figure 2-5).

    • Back beyond any hill, curve, or other obstruction that prevents other drivers from seeing the vehicle within 500 feet (see figure 2-6).

    • If you must stop on or by a one-way or divided highway, place warning devices ten (10) feet, 100 feet, and 200 feet toward the approaching traffic (see figure 2-7). When putting out the triangles, hold them between yourself and the oncoming traffic for your own safety. (So other drivers can see you).

    USE YOUR HORN WHEN NEEDED

    Your horn can let others know you're there. It can help to avoid a crash. Use your horn when needed. However, it can startle others and could be dangerous when used unnecessarily.

    (Page 2-17-19)





  27. 27. Where should your reflectors be placed when stopped on a divided highway?
    WHEN PARKED AT THE SIDE OF THE ROAD

    When you pull off the road and stop, be sure to turn on the 4-way emergency flashers. This is important at night. Don't trust the taillights to give warning. Drivers have crashed into the rear of a parked vehicle because they thought it was moving normally.

    If you must stop on a road or the shoulder of any road, you must put out your emergency warning devices as soon as possible, but in any event within ten minutes. Place your warning devices at the following locations:

    • If you stop on a 2-lane road carrying traffic in both directions or on an undivided highway, place warning devices within ten (10) feet of the front or rear corners to mark the location of the vehicle and 100 feet behind and ahead of the vehicle, on the shoulder or in the lane you stopped in (see figure 2-5).

    • Back beyond any hill, curve, or other obstruction that prevents other drivers from seeing the vehicle within 500 feet (see figure 2-6).

    • If you must stop on or by a one-way or divided highway, place warning devices ten (10) feet, 100 feet, and 200 feet toward the approaching traffic (see figure 2-7).







    (Page 2-18/19)
  28. 28. What three things add up to total stopping distance?
    SPEED AND STOPPING DISTANCES

    There are three things that add up to total stopping distance:

    • Perception Distance
    • + Reaction Distance
    • + Braking Distance
    • = Total Stopping Distance

    • PERCEPTION DISTANCE
    • This is the distance your vehicle travels from the time your eyes see a hazard until your brain recognizes it. The perception time for an alert driver is about 3/4 second. At 55 mph, you travel 60 feet in 3/4 second.

    • REACTION DISTANCE
    • The distance traveled from the time your brain tells your foot to move from the accelerator until your foot is actually pushing the brake pedal. The average driver has a reaction time of 3/4 second. This accounts for an additional 60 feet traveled at 55 mph.

    • BRAKING DISTANCE
    • The distance it takes to stop once the brakes are put on. At 55 mph on dry pavement with good brakes it can take a heavy vehicle about 170 feet to stop. It takes about 4 1/2 seconds. Total Stopping Distance At 55 mph it will take about 6 seconds to stop and your vehicle will travel about the distance of a football field. (60 + 60 + 170 = 290 feet.)

    (Page 2-20)
  29. 29. If you go twice as fast, will your stopping distance increase by twice or four times?
    Four times, as explained below:

    THE EFFECT OF SPEED ON STOPPING DISTANCE

    Whenever you double your speed, it takes about four times as much distance to stop and your vehicle will have four (4) times the destructive power if it crashes. High speeds increase stopping distances greatly. By slowing down a little, you can gain a lot in reduced braking distance.

    (Page 2-20)
  30. 30. Empty trucks have the best braking. True or False?
    False; an empy truck's braking system is much poorer than a fully loaded one's, as explained below:

    • THE EFFECT OF VEHICLE WEIGHT ON STOPPING DISTANCE
    • The heavier the vehicle, the more work the brakes must do to stop it and the more heat they absorb. But the brakes, tires, springs, and shock absorbers on heavy vehicles are designed to work best when the vehicle is fully loaded. Empty trucks require greater stopping distances, because an empty vehicle has less traction. It can bounce and lock up its wheels, giving much poorer braking. (This is not usually the case with buses.)

    (Page 2-20)
  31. 31. What is hydroplaning?
    HYDROPLANING

    In some weather, water or slush collects on the road. When this happens, your vehicle can hydroplane. It's like water skiing:the tires lose their contact with the road and have little or no traction. You may not be able to steer or brake. You can regain control by releasing the accelerator and pushing in the clutch. This will slow your vehicle and let the wheels turn freely. If the vehicle is hydroplaning, do not use the brakes to slow down. If the drive wheels start to skid, push in the clutch to let them turn freely.

    It does not take a lot of water to cause hydroplaning. Hydroplaning can occur at speeds as low as 30 mph if there is a lot of water. Hydroplaning is more likely if tire pressure is low or the tread is worn. (The grooves in a tire carry away the water; if they aren't deep, they don't work well.) Be especially careful driving through puddles. The water is often deep enough to cause hydroplaning.

    (Page 2-21)
  32. 32. What is "black ice?"
    • BLACK ICE
    • Black ice is a thin layer that is clear enough that you can see the road underneath it. It makes the road look wet. Anytime the temperature is below freezing and the road looks wet, watch out for black ice.

    (Page 2-21)
  33. 33. How do you find out how many seconds of following distance space you have?
    To know how much space you have, wait until the vehicle ahead passes a shadow on the road, a pavement marking or some other clear landmark. Then count off the seconds like this: "one thousand-and-one, one thousand-and-two" and so on until you reach the same spot.

    • Compare your count with the rule of one second for every ten (10) feet of length. If you are driving a 40-foot truck and only counted up to two (2) seconds, you're too close. Drop back a little and count again until you have four (4) seconds of following distance (or five (5) seconds, if you're going over 40 mph).
    • After a little practice, you will know how far back you should be. Remember to add one second for speeds above 40 mph. Also remember that when the road is slippery, you need much more space to stop.

    (Page 2-23)
  34. 34. If you are driving a 30-foot vehicle at 55 mph, how many seconds of following distance should you allow?
    4 Seconds are needed because the vehicle is traveling at a speed greater than 40 mph, as explained in detail below:

    HOW MUCH SPACE?

    • How much space should you keep in front of you? One good rule says you need at least one second for each ten (10) feet of vehicle length at speeds below 40 mph. At greater speeds, you must add one second for safety. For example, if you are driving a 40-foot vehicle, you should leave four (4) seconds between you and the vehicle ahead. In a 60-foot rig, you'll need six (6) seconds. Over 40 mph, you'd need five (5) seconds for a 40-foot vehicle and seven (7) seconds for a 60-foot vehicle.
    • (Page 2-23)
  35. 35. You should decrease your following distance if somebody is following you too closely. True or False?
    False; You should increase your following distance, not decrease it, as explained below:

    • DEALING WITH TAILGATERS SAFELY
    • In a large vehicle, it's often hard to see whether a vehicle is close behind you. You may be tailgated:

    • When you are traveling slowly. Drivers trapped behind slow vehicles often follow closely.

    • In bad weather. Many car drivers follow large vehicles closely during bad weather, especially when it is hard to see the road ahead. If you find yourself being tailgated, here are some things you can do to reduce the chances of a crash:

    • Avoid quick changes. If you have to slow down or turn, signal early and reduce speed very gradually.

    Increase your following distance. Opening up room in front of you will help you to avoid having to make sudden speed or direction changes. It also makes it easier for the tailgater to get around you.

    • Don't speed up. It's safer to be tailgated at a low speed than a high speed.

    • Avoid tricks. Don't turn on your taillights or flash your brake lights. Follow the suggestions above.

    (Page 2-23/24)
  36. 36. If you swing wide to the left before turning right, another driver may try to pass you on the right. True or False?
    True; This is a bad idea, as an accident may result from this maneuver. Read below for Explanation:

    RIGHT TURNS

    Here are some rules to help prevent right-turn crashes:

    • Turn slowly to give yourself and others more time to avoid problems.

    • If you are driving a truck or bus that cannot make the right turn without swinging into another lane, turn wide as you complete the turn, as shown in figure 2-8. Keep the rear of your vehicle close to the curb. This will stop other drivers from passing you on the right.

    Don't turn wide to the left as your start the turn, as shown in figure 2-9. A following driver may think you are turning left and try to pass you on the right. You may crash into the other vehicle as you complete your turn.

    • If you must cross into the oncoming lane to make a turn, watch out for vehicles coming toward you. Give them room to go by or to stop. However, don't back up for them, because you might hit someone behind you.








    (Page 2-25)
  37. 37. You should use low beams whenever you can. True or False?
    False; Visibility is reduced with low beams, see explanation below:

    • USE HIGH BEAMS WHEN YOU CAN
    • Some drivers make the mistake of always using low beams. This seriously cuts down on their ability to see ahead. Use high beams when it is safe and legal to do so. Use them when you are not within 500 feet of an approaching vehicle. Also, don't let the inside of your cab get too bright. This makes it harder to see outside. Keep the interior light off and adjust your instrument lights as low as you can and still be able to read the gauges.

    (Page 2-29)
  38. 38. What should you do before you drive if you are drowsy?
    • NIGHT DRIVING PROCEDURES
    • PRE-TRIP PROCEDURES
    • Make sure you are rested and alert. If you are drowsy, sleep before you drive! Even a nap can save your life or the lives of others. If you wear eyeglasses, make sure they are clean and unscratched. Don't wear sunglasses at night. Do a complete pre-trip inspection of your vehicle. Pay attention to checking all lights and reflectors and cleaning those you can reach.

    (Page 2-29)
  39. 39. What effects can wet brakes cause? How can you avoid these problems?
    WET BRAKES

    When driving in heavy rain or deep standing water, your brakes will get wet. Water in the brakes can cause the brakes to be weak, to apply unevenly, or to grab. This can cause lack of braking power, wheel lockups, pulling to one side or the other, and jackknife if you pull a trailer. Avoid driving through deep puddles or flowing water if possible. If not, you should:

    • Slow down.

    • Place transmission in a low gear.

    • Gently put on the brakes. This presses linings against brake drums or discs and keeps mud, silt, sand, and water from getting in.

    • Increase engine RPM and cross the water while keeping light pressure on the brakes.

    • When out of the water, maintain light pressure on the brakes for a short distance to heat them up and dry them out.

    • Make a test stop when safe to do so. Check behind to make sure no one is following, then apply the brakes to be sure they work right. If not, dry out further as described above.


    (CAUTION:Do no apply too much brake pressure and accelerator at the same time or you can overheat brake drums and linings.)

    (Page 2-31)
  40. 40. You should let air out of hot tires so the pressure goes back to normal. True or False?
    False; bad things could potentially happen if you do, read explanation below:

    TIRES

    Check the tire mounting and air pressure. Inspect the tires every two hours or every 100 miles when driving in very hot weather. Air pressure increases with temperature. Do not let air out or the pressure will be too low when the tires cool off. If a tire is too hot to touch, remain stopped until the tire cools off. Otherwise the tire may blow out or catch fire.

    (Page 2-32)
  41. 41. You can safely remove the radiator cap as long as the engine isn't overheated. True or False?
    True; You should wait until the engine is turned off first, read below for additional steps involved:

    • Never remove the radiator cap or any part of the pressurized system until the system has cooled. Steam and boiling water can spray under pressure and cause severe burns. If you can touch the radiator cap with your bare hand, it is probably cool enough to open.
    • If coolant has to be added to a system without a recovery tank or overflow tank, follow these steps:

    • Shut engine off.

    • Wait until engine has cooled.

    • Protect hands (use gloves or a thick cloth).

    • Turn radiator cap slowly to the first stop, which releases the pressure seal.

    • Step back while pressure is released from cooling system.

    • When all pressure has been released, press down on the cap and turn it further to remove it.

    • Visually check level of coolant and add more coolant if necessary.

    • Replace cap and turn all the way to the closed position.

    (Page 2-32)
  42. 42. What factors determine your selection of a "safe" speed when going down a long, steep downgrade?
    • SELECT A "SAFE" SPEED
    • Your most important consideration is to select a speed that is not too fast for the:

    • Total weight of the vehicle and cargo.

    • Length of the grade.

    • Steepness of the grade.

    • Road conditions.

    • Weather.


    If a speed limit is posted, or there is a sign indicating "Maximum Safe Speed," never exceed the speed shown. Also, look for and heed warning signs indicating the length and steepness of the grade.

    You must use the braking effect of the engine as the principal way of controlling your speed. The braking effect of the engine is greatest when it is near the governed RPMs and the transmission is in the lower gears. Save your brakes so you will be able to slow or stop as required by road and traffic conditions.

    (Page 2-34/35)
  43. 43. Why should you be in the proper gear before starting down a hill?
    BE IN THE RIGHT GEAR BEFORE STARTING DOWN THE GRADE

    Shift the transmission to a low gear before starting down the grade. Do not try to downshift after your speed has already built up. You will not be able to shift into a lower gear. You may not even be able to get back into any gear and all engine braking effect will be lost. Forcing an automatic transmission into a lower gear at high speed could damage the transmission and also lead to loss of all engine braking effect.

    With older trucks, a rule for choosing gears is to use the same gear going down a hill that you would need to climb the hill. However, new trucks have low friction parts and streamlined shapes for fuel economy. They may also have more powerful engines. This means they can go up hills in higher gears and have less friction and air drag to hold them back going down hills. For that reason, drivers of modern trucks may have to use lower gears going down a hill than would be required to go up the hill. You should know what is right for your vehicle.

    (Page 2-35)
  44. 44. Describe the proper braking technique when going down a long, steep downgrade.
    SNUB BRAKING TECHNIQUE

    REMEMBER:

    • The use of brakes on a long and/or steep downgrade is only a supplement to the braking effect of the engine. Once the vehicle is in the proper low gear, the following describes snub braking, which is the proper braking technique for long and/or steep downgrades:
    • 1. Apply the brakes just hard enough to feel a definite slowdown.

    2. When your speed has been reduced to approximately 5 mph below your "safe" speed, release the brakes (this brake application should last for about three (3) seconds).

    3. When your speed has increased to your "safe" speed, repeat steps 1 and 2. For example, if your "safe" speed is 40 mph, you would not apply the brakes until your speed reaches 40 mph. You now apply the brakes hard enough to gradually reduce your speed to 35 mph and then release the brakes. Repeat this as often as necessary until you have reached the end of the downgrade.


    Escape ramps have been built on many steep mountain downgrades. Escape ramps are made to stop runaway vehicles safely without injuring drivers and passengers. Escape ramps use a long bed of loose soft material to slow a runaway vehicle, sometimes in combination with an upgrade. Know escape ramp locations on your route. Signs show drivers where ramps are located. Escape ramps save lives, equipment, and cargo. Use them if you lose your brakes.

    (Page 2-35)
  45. 45. What is a hazard?
    IMPORTANCE OF SEEING HAZARDS

    What Is A Hazard?

    A hazard is any road condition or other road user (driver, bicyclist, pedestrian) that is a possible danger. For example, a car in front of you is headed towards the freeway exit, but his brake lights come on and he begins braking hard. This could mean that the driver is uncertain about taking the offramp. He might suddenly return to the highway. This car is a hazard. If the driver of the car cuts in front of you, it is no longer just a hazard; it is an emergency.


    Seeing Hazards Lets You Be Prepared

    You will have more time to act if you see hazards before they become emergencies. In the example above, you might make a lane change or slow down to prevent a crash if the car suddenly cuts in front of you. Seeing this hazard gives you time to check your mirrors and signal a lane change. Being prepared reduces the danger. A driver who did not see the hazard until the slow car pulled back on the highway in front of him would have to do something very suddenly. Sudden braking or a quick lane change is much more likely to lead to a crash.

    Learning To See Hazards

    There are often clues that will help you see hazards. The more you drive, the better you can get at seeing hazards. This section will talk about hazards that you should be aware of.

    (Page 2-36)
  46. 46. Why make emergency plans when you see a hazard?
    ALWAYS HAVE A PLAN

    You should always be looking for hazards. Continue to learn to see hazards on the road. However, don't forget why you are looking for the hazards:they may turn into emergencies. You look for the hazards in order to have time to plan a way out of any emergency. When you see a hazard, think about the emergencies that could develop and figure out what you would do. Always be prepared to take action based on your plans. In this way, you will be a prepared, defensive driver who will improve not only your own safety but the safety of all road users.

    (Page 2-39)
  47. 47. Stopping is not always the safest thing to do in an emergency. True or False?
    True; Some top-heavy vehicles however, may flip over if you turn in the opposite direction of where the emergency is. Read below for Explanation:

    • STEERING TO AVOID A CRASH
    • Stopping is not always the safest thing to do in an emergency. When you don't have enough room to stop, you may have to steer away from what's ahead. Remember, you can almost always turn to miss an obstacle more quickly than you can stop. (However, top-heavy vehicles and tractors with multiple trailers may flip over.)

    (Page 2-40)
  48. 48. What are some advantages of going right instead of left around an obstacle?
    WHERE TO STEER

    If an oncoming driver has drifted into your lane, a move to your right is best. If that driver realizes what has happened, the natural response will be to return to his or her own lane. If something is blocking your path, the best direction to steer will depend on the situation.

    • If you have been using your mirrors, you'll know which lane is empty and can be safely used.

    • If the shoulder is clear, going right may be best. No one is likely to be driving on the shoulder but someone may be passing you on the left. You will know if you have been using your mirrors.

    • If you are blocked on both sides, a move to the right may be best. At least you won't force anyone into an opposing traffic lane and a possible head-on collision.


    (Page 2-40)
  49. 49. What is an "escape ramp"?
    BRAKE FAILURE ON DOWNGRADES

    Going slow enough and braking properly will almost always prevent brake failure on long downgrades. Once the brakes have failed, however, you are going to have to look outside your vehicle for something to stop it.

    Your best hope is an escape ramp. If there is one, there will be signs telling you about it. Use it. Ramps are usually located a few miles from the top of the downgrade. Every year, hundreds of drivers avoid injury to themselves or damage to their vehicles by using escape ramps. Some escape ramps use soft gravel that resists the motion of the vehicle and brings it to a stop. Others turn uphill, using the hill to stop the vehicle and soft gravel to hold it in place.

    Any driver who loses brakes going downhill should use an escape ramp if it's available. If you don't use it, your chances of having a serious crash may be much greater.

    If no escape ramp is available, take the least hazardous escape route you can–such as an open field or a side road that flattens out or turns uphill. Make the move as soon as you know your brakes don't work. The longer you wait, the faster the vehicle will go and the harder it will be to stop.


    (Page 2-42)
  50. 50. If a tire blows out, you should put the brakes on hard to stop quickly. True or False?
    False; Doing so may cause a complete lack of control of the vehicle. Read the explanation below:

    • TIRE FAILURE
    • RECOGNIZE TIRE FAILURE

    Quickly knowing you have a tire failure will let you have more time to react. Having just a few seconds to remember what it is you're supposed to do can help you. The major signs of tire failure are:

    SOUND

    The loud "bang" of a blowout is an easily recognized sign. Because it can take a few seconds for your vehicle to react, you might think it was some other vehicle. But any time you hear a tire blow, you'd be safest to assume it was yours.

    VIBRATION

    If the vehicle thumps or vibrates heavily, it may be a sign that one of the tires has gone flat. With a rear tire, that may be the only sign you get.

    • FEEL
    • If the steering feels "heavy," it is probably a sign that one of the front tires has failed. Sometimes, failure of a rear tire will cause the vehicle to slide back and forth or "fishtail." However, dual rear tires usually prevent this.

    Any of these signs is a warning of possible tire failure. You should do the following things:

    • Hold The Steering Wheel Firmly
    • If a front tire fails, it can twist the steering wheel out of your hand. The only way to prevent this is to keep a firm grip on the steering wheel with both hands at all times.

    Stay Off The Brake

    • It's natural to want to brake in an emergency. However, braking when a tire has failed could cause loss of control. Unless you're about to run into something, stay off the brake until the vehicle has slowed down. Then brake very gently, pull off the road, and stop.
    • Check The Tires

    After you've come to a stop, get out and check all the tires. Do this even if the vehicle seems to be handling all right. If one of your dual tires goes, the only way you may know it is by getting out and looking at it.

    (Page 2-42/43)
  51. 51. What are some things to do at an accident scene to prevent another accident?
    2.17 ACCIDENT PROCEDURES

    When you're in an accident and not seriously hurt, you need to act to prevent further damage or injury. The basic steps to be taken at any accident are to:

    • Protect the area.

    • Notify authorities.

    • Care for the injured.


    PROTECT THE AREA

    The first thing to do at an accident scene is to keep another accident from happening at the same spot. To protect the accident area:

    • If your vehicle is involved in the accident, try to get it to the side of the road. This will help prevent another accident and allow traffic to move.

    • If you're stopping to help, park away from the accident. The area immediately around the accident will be needed for emergency vehicles.

    • Put on your flashers.

    • Set out reflective triangles to warn other traffic. Make sure they can be seen by other drivers in time for them to avoid the accident.

    • NOTIFY AUTHORITIES
    • If you have a CB, put out a call over the emergency channel before you get out of your vehicle. If not, wait until after the accident scene has been properly protected, then phone or send someone to phone the police. Try to determine where you are so you can give the exact location.

    CARE FOR THE INJURED

    If a qualified person is at the accident and helping the injured, stay out of the way unless asked to assist. Otherwise, do the best you can to help any injured parties. Here are some simple steps to follow in giving assistance:

    • Don't move a severely injured person unless the danger of fire or passing traffic makes it necessary.

    • Stop heavy bleeding by applying direct pressure to the wound.

    • Keep the injured person warm.

    (Page 2-44/45)
  52. 52. Name two causes of tire fires.
    2.18 FIRES

    Truck fires can cause damage and injury. Learn the causes of fires and how to prevent them. Know what to do to extinguish fires.

    • CAUSES OF FIRE
    • The following are some causes of vehicle fires:

    AFTER ACCIDENTS

    Spilled fuel, improper use of flares.

    TIRES

    Under-inflated tires and duals that touch.

    ELECTRICAL SYSTEM

    • Short circuits due to damaged insulation, loose connections. FUEL Driver smoking, improper fueling, loose fuel connections.
    • CARGO
    • Flammable cargo, improperly sealed or loaded, poor ventilation.

    (Page 2-45/46)
  53. 53. What kinds of fires is a B:C extinguisher not good for?
    Burning wood, paper, and cloth, as explained below:

    USE THE RIGHT FIRE EXTINGUISHER

    • The B:C type fire extinguisher is designed to work on electrical fires and burning liquids. The A:B:C type is designed to work on burning wood, paper and cloth as well.

    • Water can be used on wood, paper or cloth, but don't use water on an electrical fire (you could get shocked) or a gasoline fire (it will just spread the flames).

    • A burning tire must be cooled. Lots of water may be required.

    • If you're not sure what to use, especially on a hazardous materials fire, wait for qualified firefighters.

    (Page 2-46/47)
  54. 54. When using your extinguisher, should you get as close as possible to the fire?
    No, you should not, as explained:

    EXTINGUISH THE FIRE

    Here are some rules to follow in putting out a fire:

    • Only try to extinguish a fire if you know what you are doing and it is safe to do so.

    • When using the extinguisher, stay as far away from the fire as possible.

    • Aim at the source or base of the fire, not up in the flames.

    • Position yourself upwind. Let the wind carry the extinguisher to the fire rather than carrying the flames to you.

    • Continue until whatever was burning has been cooled. Absence of smoke or flame does not mean the fire is completely out or cannot restart.

    (Page 2-47)
  55. 55. Name some causes of vehicle fires.
    CAUSES OF FIRE

    The following are some causes of vehicle fires:

    AFTER ACCIDENTS

    Spilled fuel, improper use of flares.

    • TIRES
    • Under-inflated tires and duals that touch.

    • ELECTRICAL SYSTEM
    • Short circuits due to damaged insulation, loose connections.

    FUEL

    Driver smoking, improper fueling, loose fuel connections.

    CARGO

    Flammable cargo, improperly sealed or loaded, poor ventilation.

    (Page 2-45/46)
  56. 56. Common medicines for colds can make you sleepy. True or False?
    True; medicines such as NyQuil (not DayQuil) can make you feel very sleepy. Read below for further explanation:

    BE READY TO DRIVE

    • GET ENOUGH SLEEP
    • Leaving on a long trip when you're already tired is dangerous. If you have a long trip scheduled, make sure that you get enough sleep before you go. Most people require 7-8 hours of sleep every 24 hours.

    SCHEDULE TRIPS SAFELY

    Your body gets used to sleeping during certain hours. If you are driving during those hours, you will be less alert. If possible, try to schedule trips for the hours you are normally awake. Many heavy motor vehicle accidents occur between midnight and 6 a.m. Tired drivers can easily fall asleep at these times, especially if they don't regularly drive at those hours. Trying to push on and finish a long trip at these times can be very dangerous.

    • AVOID MEDICATION
    • Many medicines can make you sleepy. Those that do have a label warning against operating vehicles or machinery. The most common medicine of this type is an ordinary cold pill. If you have to drive with a cold, you are better off suffering from the cold than from the effects of the medicine.
    • KEEP COOL
    • A hot, poorly ventilated cab can make you sleepy. Keep the window or vent cracked or use the air conditioner, if you have one.

    TAKE BREAKS

    Short breaks can keep you alert. But the time to take them is before you feel really drowsy or tired. Stop often. Walk around and inspect your vehicle. It may help to do some physical exercises.

    (Page 2-47/48)
  57. 57. What should you do if you do become sleepy while driving?
    WHEN YOU DO BECOME SLEEPY

    When you are sleepy, trying to "push on" is far more dangerous than most drivers think. It is a major cause of fatal accidents. Here are some important rules to follow:

    STOP TO SLEEP

    When your body needs sleep, sleep is the only thing that will work. If you have to make a stop anyway, make it whenever you feel the first signs of sleepiness, even if it is earlier than you planned. By getting up a little earlier the next day, you can keep on schedule without the danger of driving while you are not alert.

    TAKE A NAP

    If you can't stop for the night, at least pull off at a safe place, such as a rest area or truck stop and take a nap. A nap as short as a half-hour will do more to overcome fatigue than a half-hour coffee stop.

    • AVOID DRUGS
    • There are no drugs that can overcome being tired. While they may keep you awake for a while, they won't make you alert. And eventually, you'll be even more tired than if you hadn't taken them at all. Sleep is the only thing that can overcome fatigue.

    (Page 2-48)
  58. 58. Coffee and a little fresh air will help a drinker sober up. True or False?
    False; Read below for further explanation:

    THE TRUTH ABOUT ALCOHOL

    There are many dangerous ideas about the use of alcohol. The driver who believes in these wrong ideas will be more likely to get into trouble. Here are some examples:

    • FALSE
    • Alcohol increases your ability to drive

    • THE TRUTH
    • Alcohol is a drug that will make you less alert and reduce your ability to drive safely

    • FALSE
    • Some people can drink a lot and not be affected

    • THE TRUTH
    • Everyone who drinks is affected by alcohol

    • FALSE
    • If you eat a lot first, you won't get drunk

    • THE TRUTH
    • Food will not keep you from getting drunk

    • FALSE
    • Coffee and a little fresh air will help a drinker sober up

    • THE TRUTH
    • Only time will help a drinker sober up– other methods just don't work

    • FALSE
    • Stick with beer–it's not as strong as wine or whiskey

    • THE TRUTH
    • A few beers are the same as a few shots of whiskey or a few glasses of wine

    (Page 2-48/49)
  59. 59. What is a hazardous materials placard?
    PLACARDS

    Placards are used to warn others of hazardous materials. Placards are signs put on the outside of a vehicle which identify the hazard class of the cargo. A placarded vehicle must have at least 4 identical placards. They are put on the front, rear, and both sides (see figure 9-3). Placards must be readable from all four directions. They are 10 3/4 inches square, turned upright on a point, in a diamond shape. Cargo tanks and other bulk packaging display the I.D. number of their contents on placards or orange panels.

    Not all vehicles carrying hazardous materials need to have placards. The rules about placards are given in Section 9 of this driver's manual. You can drive a vehicle that carries hazardous materials if it does not require placards. If it requires placards, you must not drive it unless your driver's license has the hazardous materials endorsement.



    (Page 2-52/9-7)
  60. 60. Why are placards used?
    PLACARDS

    Placards are used to warn others of hazardous materials. Placards are signs put on the outside of a vehicle which identify the hazard class of the cargo. A placarded vehicle must have at least 4 identical placards. They are put on the front, rear, and both sides (see figure 9-3). Placards must be readable from all four directions. They are 10 3/4 inches square, turned upright on a point, in a diamond shape. Cargo tanks and other bulk packaging display the I.D. number of their contents on placards or orange panels.

    Not all vehicles carrying hazardous materials need to have placards. The rules about placards are given in Section 9 of this driver's manual. You can drive a vehicle that carries hazardous materials if it does not require placards. If it requires placards, you must not drive it unless your driver's license has the hazardous materials endorsement.

    (Page 2-52)
  61. 61. You are better off to consume a 12 ounce glass of 5% beer, than a 1 1/2 ounce shot of 80 proof liquor. True or False?
    False; read below for further explanation:

    • WHAT IS A DRINK?
    • It is the alcohol in drinks that affects human performance. It doesn't make any difference whether that alcohol comes from "a couple of beers" or from two glasses of wine or two shots of hard liquor. All of the following drinks contain the same amount of alcohol:

    • A 12 ounce glass of 5% beer.

    • A 5 ounce glass of 12% wine.

    • A 1 1/2 ounce shot of 80 proof liquor.

    (Page 2-49)
  62. 62. For what three things related to cargo are drivers responsible?
    Whether or not you load and secure the cargo yourself, you are responsible for:

    • Inspecting your cargo.

    • Recognizing overloads and poorly balanced weight.

    • • Knowing your cargo is properly secured.
    • These are discussed below.

    If you intend to carry hazardous material that requires placards on your vehicle, you will also have to have a hazardous materials endorsement. Section 9 of this manual has the information you need to pass the hazardous materials test.

    (Page 3-1)
  63. 63. How often must you stop while on the road to check your cargo?
    • BEFORE STARTING
    • Inspect the cargo and its securing devices again within 25 miles after beginning a trip. Make any adjustments needed. Check the cargo and securing devices as often as necessary during a trip to keep the load secure. A good habit is to inspect again:

    • After you have driven for 3 hours or 150 miles.

    • After every break you take during driving.


    Federal, state, and local regulations for commercial vehicle weight, securing cargo, covering loads, and where you can drive large vehicles vary from place to place. Know the rules where you will be driving.

    (Page 3-1)
  64. 64. How is Gross Combination Weight Rating different from Gross Combination Weight?
    DEFINITIONS YOU SHOULD KNOW

    GROSS VEHICLE WEIGHT (GVW)

    The total weight of a single vehicle plus its load.

    GROSS COMBINATION WEIGHT (GCW)

    The total weight of a powered unit plus trailer(s) plus the cargo.


    GROSS VEHICLE WEIGHT RATING (GVWR)

    The maximum GVW specified by the manufacturer for a single vehicle plus its load.

    GROSS COMBINATION WEIGHT RATING (GCWR)

    The maximum GCW specified by the manufacturer for a specific combination of vehicles plus its load.


    AXLE WEIGHT


    The weight transmitted to the ground by one axle or one set of axles.

    TIRE LOAD

    • The maximum safe weight a tire can carry at a specified pressure. This rating is stated on the side of each tire.
    • SUSPENSION SYSTEM

    Suspension systems have a manufacturer's weight capacity rating.

    COUPLING DEVICE CAPACITY

    Coupling devices are rated for the maximum weight they can pull and/or carry.

    (Page 3-2)
  65. 65. Name two situations where legal maximum weights may not be safe.
    • LEGAL WEIGHT LIMITS
    • You must keep weights within legal limits. States have maximums for GVWs, GCWs and axle weights. Often, maximum axle weights are set by a bridge formula. A bridge formula permits less maximum axle weight for axles that are closer together. This is to prevent overloading bridges and roadways.

    Overloading can have bad effects on steering, braking, and speed control. Overloaded trucks have to go very slow on upgrades. Worse, they may gain too much speed on downgrades. Stopping distance increases. Brakes can fail when forced to work too hard.

    During bad weather or in mountains, it may not be safe to operate at legal maximum weights. Take this into account before driving.

    (Page 3-2)
  66. 66. What can happen if you don't have enough weight on the front axle?
    BALANCE THE WEIGHT

    Poor weight balance can make vehicle handling unsafe. Too much weight on the steering axle can cause hard steering. It can damage the steering axle and tires. Underloaded front axles (caused by shifting weight too far to the rear) can make the steering axle weight too light to steer safely. Too little weight on the driving axles can cause poor traction. The drive wheels may spin easily. During bad weather, the truck may not be able to keep going. Weight that is loaded so there is a high center of gravity causes greater chance of rollover. On flat bed vehicles, there is also a greater chance that the load will shift to the side or fall off. Figure 3-1 shows examples of the right and wrong way to balance cargo weight.





    (Page 3-2/3)
  67. 67. What is the minimum number of tiedowns for any flat bed load?
    CARGO TIEDOWN

    On flatbed trailers or trailers without sides, cargo must be secured to keep it from shifting or falling off. In closed vans, tiedowns can also be important to prevent cargo shifting that may affect the handling of the vehicle. Tiedowns must be of the proper type and proper strength. The combined strength of all cargo tiedowns must be strong enough to lift one and one-half times the weight of the piece of cargo tied down. Proper tiedown equipment must be used, including ropes, straps, chains, and tensioning devices (winches, ratchets, clinching components). Tiedowns must be attached to the vehicle correctly (hook, bolt, rails, rings).

    Cargo should have at least one tiedown for each ten (10) feet of cargo. Make sure you have enough tiedowns to meet this need. No matter how small the cargo, it should have at least two tiedowns holding it.

    There are special requirements for securing various heavy pieces of metal. Find out what they are if you are to carry such loads.

    (Page 3-4)
  68. 68. What is the minimum number of tiedowns for a 20 foot load?
    Two (2) tiedowns, as explained below:

    CARGO TIEDOWN

    On flatbed trailers or trailers without sides, cargo must be secured to keep it from shifting or falling off. In closed vans, tiedowns can also be important to prevent cargo shifting that may affect the handling of the vehicle. Tiedowns must be of the proper type and proper strength. The combined strength of all cargo tiedowns must be strong enough to lift one and one-half times the weight of the piece of cargo tied down. Proper tiedown equipment must be used, including ropes, straps, chains, and tensioning devices (winches, ratchets, clinching components). Tiedowns must be attached to the vehicle correctly (hook, bolt, rails, rings).

    Cargo should have at least one tiedown for each ten (10) feet of cargo. Make sure you have enough tiedowns to meet this need. No matter how small the cargo, it should have at least two tiedowns holding it.

    There are special requirements for securing various heavy pieces of metal. Find out what they are if you are to carry such loads.

    (Page 3-4)
  69. 69. Name the two basic reasons for covering cargo on an open bed.
    COVERING CARGO

    There are two basic reasons for covering cargo:

    (1) to protect people from spilled cargo

    and

    (2) to protect the cargo from weather.

    Spill protection is a safety requirement in many states. Be familiar with the laws in the states you drive in.

    You should look at your cargo covers in the mirrors from time to time while driving. A flapping cover can tear loose, uncovering the cargo, and possibly block your view or someone else's. You cannot inspect sealed loads, but you should check that you don't exceed gross weight and axle weight limits.

    (Page 3-4)
  70. 70. What must you check before transporting a sealed load?
    You must check and make sure that the sealed load is properly secured, tied down, and/or locked according to protocol. Read below for further explanation:

    • SEALED AND CONTAINERIZED LOADS
    • Containerized loads generally are used when freight is carried part way by rail or ship. Delivery by truck occurs at the beginning and/or end of the journey. Some containers have their own tiedown devices or locks that attach directly to a special frame. Others have to be loaded onto flat bed trailers. They must be properly secured just like any other cargo.

    (Page 3-4)
  71. 71. List and explain some other types of cargo that need special attention:

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.
    1. DRY BULK

    Dry bulk tanks require special care because they often have a high center of gravity and the load can shift. Be extremely cautious (slow and careful) going around curves and making sharp turns.

    2. HANGING MEAT

    Hanging meat (suspended beef, pork, lamb) in a refrigerated truck can be a very unstable load with a high center of gravity. Particular caution is needed on sharp curves such as off ramps and on ramps. Go slow.

    3. LIVESTOCK

    Livestock can move around in a trailer, causing unsafe handling. With less than a full load, use false bulkheads to keep livestock bunched together. Even when bunched, special care is necessary because livestock can lean on curves. This shifts the center of gravity and makes rollover more likely.

    • 4. OVERSIZED LOADS
    • Over length, over width, and/or over weight loads require special transit permits. Driving is usually limited to certain times. Special equipment may be necessary such as "wide load" signs, flashing lights, flags, etc. Such loads may require a police escort or pilot vehicles bearing warning signs and/or flashing lights. These special loads require special driving care.

    (Page 3-5)
  72. 72. Read the information below concerning The DUI and BAC (Blood Alcohol Concentration) Laws of the State of Pennsylvania, not only are these typically the first set of questions asked of you on the test, they are also pieces of information that are noteworthy and may save you a hefty fine and valuable time later on down the road (no pun intended):
    • 1.3 OTHER SAFETY ACT RULES
    • There are other Commercial Motor Vehicle Safety Act rules which affect drivers. They are:

    • • You cannot have more than one driver's license. If you break this rule, a court may fine you up
    • to $5,000 and put you in jail. Keep only your home state driver's license and return any and all
    • others.

    • • You must notify your employer within 30 days of a conviction for any traffic violation (except
    • parking). This is true no matter what type of vehicle you were driving at the time of the
    • violation.

    • • You must notify PennDOT within 30 days if you are convicted in any other State of any traffic
    • violation (except parking). This is true no matter what type of vehicle you were driving at the
    • time of the violation.

    • • You must notify your employer by the close of business on the next business day if your
    • driver's license is suspended, revoked, or cancelled, or if your commercial driving privilege is
    • disqualified.

    • • You must give your employer information on all driving jobs you have held for the past ten (10)
    • years. You must do this when you apply for a commercial driving job.

    • • No one can drive a commercial motor vehicle in Pennsylvania without a CDL. If you do, you
    • may be fined up to $5,000 or put in jail for violating this rule.

    • • Your employer may not let you drive a commercial motor vehicle if you have more than one
    • driver's license or if your CDL is suspended, revoked, cancelled, or disqualified. Your employer
    • may be fined up to $5,000 or put in jail for violating this rule.

    • • Each state is connected to one computerized system to share information about CDL drivers.
    • The states will check on drivers' records to be sure that drivers donʼt have more than one
    • Commercial Driverʼs License.

    • You will lose your CDL for at least one (1) year for a first offense if you are convicted for:

    • - Driving a commercial motor vehicle (CMV) while under the influence of alcohol or a
    • controlled substance (for example, illegal drugs).

    - Accidents involving death or personal injury while driving a CMV.

    - Accidents involving damage to unattended vehicle or property while driving a CMV.

    • - Driving a CMV while your driving privilege is suspended, revoked, cancelled or recalled or
    • while subject to disqualification of an out-of-state service order.

    • - Using a CMV to commit a felony.
    • Subsequent offenses will carry stiffer penalties.

    • If the offense occurs while you are operating a CMV that is placarded for hazardous materials, you
    • will lose your CDL for at least three (3) years for the first offense. You will lose your CDL for life for a
    • second offense. You will also lose your CDL for life if you use a CMV to commit a felony involving
    • controlled substances.

    • You will lose your CDL:

    • - For at least 60 days if you have committed two serious traffic violations within a 3-year
    • period involving a CMV.

    - For at least 120 days for three (3) serious traffic violations within a 3-year period.

    • "Serious traffic violations" include but are not limited to traffic offenses committed in a CMV
    • in connection with fatal traffic accidents, excessive speeding, reckless driving, or eluding the
    • police.

    • • If you drive a school vehicle or school bus when your blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is
    • 0.02 percent or more, you are driving under the influence of alcohol. If you drive any other type
    • of commercial vehicle and your BAC is 0.04% or more, you are driving under the influence.
    • You will lose your CDL for one year for your first offense. If your blood alcohol concentration is
    • less than 0.02 percent for school bus and school vehicle drivers, or less than 0.04 percent for
    • other commercial motor vehicle drivers, but you have any detectable amount, you can be
    • placed out-of-service for up to 30 days.

    PENNSYLVANIA'S IMPLIED CONSENT LAW

    • As a commercial driver, it is very important that you understand PAʼs “Implied Consent” law. If a
    • police officer has reasonable ground to believe that you were driving a CMV while having any
    • alcohol in your system, and you refuse to take one or more chemical tests of breath, blood, or urine,
    • your driving privilege will be suspended for one year (12 months), or 18 months if you have a prior
    • refusal or DUI conviction on your driving record. A single refusal violation, combined with a DUI
    • conviction would cause your driving privilege to be suspended for at least (2) years (longer, if you
    • have prior refusal or DUI convictions).

    • The law covering chemical testing says that you have agreed to take such a test just by being
    • licensed to drive in Pennsylvania. Even if you are found not guilty of driving while under the
    • influence, your driving privilege will be suspended for at least one (1) year if you refuse to take a
    • blood, breath or urine test. In addition, if you are involved in an accident involving a motor carrier
    • vehicle or CMV, and a police officer is required to investigate, you will be required to submit to
    • testing for alcohol or controlled substances, with the cost for testing to be paid by your employer. If
    • you refuse to submit to alcohol or controlled substance testing, and are convicted under Section
    • 3756, you will be subject to fines of up to $200 (plus costs).

    These rules will improve highway safety for you and all highway users.

    • NOTE:The penalties identified in this publication may be revised, in whole or in part, by
    • the General Assembly at any time. Please refer to Title 75 PA Vehicle Code, or the
    • PA Bulletin for specific regulations and updates.

    (Page 1-8/9)

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