Lab 2

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Lab 2
2013-02-03 00:04:16
BIL 220

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  1. Cells in a multicellular organism can __.
  2. The sum of the stages and changes going from a single cell to a final complex multicellular organism can be subdivided as follows:
    • determination: group of cells or cell become restrictred to some predictable pathway of development
    • differentiation
    • growth
    • morphogenesis
  3. determination:
    determination: group of cells or cell become restrictred to some predictable pathway of development
  4. differentiation
    the actual expression of determination; differences in cell structure and/or function are now evident
  5. Growth
    irreversible increase in mass of the organism
  6. Morphogenesis
    appearance of shape or form
  7. Four Types of Animal Tissues
    • epithelial-covering
    • connective-support
    • muscle- movement
    • nervous- control
  8. Epithelial
    • sheet of cells that covers body surfaces and lines body cavities
    • Two kinds: covering and lining epithelium
    • glandular epithelium
  9. Epithelial tissue forms boundaries and in this role perform many functions
    • protection
    • absorption
    • filtration
    • excretion
    • secretion
    • sensory reception
  10. Charactistics of epithelium tissue
    • cellularity-closely packed, little extracellular space
    • Specialized COntacts- fit together in sheets
    • Polarity- Free or Apical Surface and an Attached or Basal Surface
    • Supported by COnnective Tissue
    • Innervated but Avascular
    • Regeneration-high capacity
  11. Classification of epithelium tissue
    • number of layers (simple/ stratified)
    • shape of cells (squamous, cubodial, columnar)
    • simple: absorption, secretion, filtration
    • stratified: protection
  12. Glandular Epithelium
    • Gland- one or more cells that make and secrete a product
    • endocrine (no ducts) / exocrime (ducts)
    • tubular vs. alveolar
    • simple vs. compound
  13. Connective TIssue
    • most abundant and widely distributed tissue types
    • Subclasses: connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone, blood
  14. Connective Tissue
    Major funcionts
    • binding and suport
    • protection
    • insulation
    • transportation of substances
  15. Characteristics of Connective Tissue:
    • common origin-all arise from mesenchyme
    • degree of vascularity
    • extracellular matrix
  16. Connective Tissue
    Structural Elements
    • Ground substance- amorphous material that fills spaces between cells and contains fibers
    • Fibers
    • CElls
    • (the ground surface and fibers make up the matrix_
  17. Fibers
    • Collagen- made of protein collagen, extremely tough/ high strength
    • Elastic- made of protein elastin, coiled structure, allows stretch
    • Reticular- made of protein collagen, branch to form networks
  18. Muscle tissue is highly specialized to __ in order to produce movement of some body parts. They tend to be __, providing a long axis for contraction.
    • contract (shorten)
    • elongated
  19. Three types of muscle tissue
    • skeletal: voluntary/ moves limbs and other body parts; long, cylindrical and multinucleate with striations
    • cardiac: only in heart, striated with branching uninucleate that fit together at intercalated disks; involuntary
    • Smooth (visceral) muscle: walls of hollow organs; two layers running at right angles to each other; no striations; uninucleate and spindle-shaped
  20. Nervous Tissue
    neuroglia (supporting cells) and neurons (receive stimuli and conduct impulses to body
  21. Structure of neurons
    • nucleus-containing body
    • cytoplasm drawn out into long extensions