Pharmacology- Exam 1

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  1. Name seven drug sources.
    • 1.) Animals
    • 2.) Plants
    • 3.) Fungi
    • 4.) Bacteria
    • 5.) Recombinant DNA
    • 6.) Minerals
    • 7.) Synthetic
  2. What are the four components of a drug regimen?
    • Route
    • Dosage
    • Frequency
    • Duration
  3. Name some influences on the route of administration.
    • form
    • chemical properties
    • onset of action
    • behavior of animal
    • nature of condition being treated
  4. True/False: Oral administration is not suitable when patient has vomitting or diarhhea.
  5. True/False: Oral meds provide slower absorption and have a longer effect.
  6. Define Efficacy
    Degree to which the drug produces it's desired response.
  7. Name the five rights of drug administration be the technician.
    • Right patient
    • Right Drug
    • Right Dose
    • Right Route
    • Right Frequency
  8. True/False: Intracelllar fluids make up 2/3 of bodily fluids.
  9. What are the three minerals in the intracellular space?
    potassium, magnesium, phosphate
  10. Where are some places extracellular fluid is found?
    • Intersitial fluid
    • Intra-ocular fluid
    • Plasma
    • CSF
    • GI Fluids
  11. What are the three minerals that are found in the extracellular space?
    • Sodium
    • Chloride
    • Bicarbonate ion
  12. Which type of fluid causes no change in cell size or water concentration?

    A.) Isotonic
    B.) Hypotonic
    C.) Hypertonic
    A.) Isotonic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Name two examples of common isotonic fluids in a veterinary clinic.
    • 0.9% Saline
    • 5% Dextrose
  14. Up to what hydration status should you administer isotonic fluids?
    10% or less
  15. Which type of fluids should be used in very dehydrated or hemmoraging animals?
  16. What are two examples of common Hypertonic fluids?
    • 3% Saline
    • Mannitol
  17. Which type of fluids causes water to move out of the cells and into the extracellular fluid?
  18. Is edema more common in the intracellular or extracellular space?
    Extracellular space.
  19. Ascities can be caused by what?
    • Inflammatory response
    • Decreased plasma proteins due to liver failure, starvation or parasites.
  20. What do balanced fluids refer to?
    Fluids that resemble ECF in composition.
  21. What are some examples of balanced fluids?
    • Normasol
    • 0.9% Saline
    • Lactated Ringers Soln
    • (these fluids also happen to be isotonic)
  22. True/False: Hypertonic fluids can shift from ECF to ICF.
  23. What are the three factors used to calculate daily fluid replacement?
    • Hydration deficeit
    • Maintenance/ fluid intake
    • OnGoing losses
  24. True/False: 1 Liter is approximately equal to 1 Kg.
  25. What is the rule of thumb for daily maintenance?
  26. For more severe fluid loss, and to deliver fluids quiclkly which route should be used?
  27. True/False: Hypertonic solutions can be given SC.
  28. Where can Intraosseous fluids be given?
    Femur, humerus, ileum
  29. How many gtt/mL in a macrodrip set?
  30. How many gtt/mL in a microdrip set?
  31. What physical signs should be monitored during fluid replacement?
    • Lung sounds
    • Skin tugor
    • Urine output
  32. 0.9% Nacl, LRS, 5% Dextrose are examples of what type of soln?
  33. When a drug stock concentration is expressed as a percentage, how do you convert to mg/mL?
    • Add a 0.
    • Ex: 5%= 50mg/mL
  34. What is the main difference between LRS and Normasol?
    Normasol is calcium free and also has a dual buffering system.
  35. Fluids that contain very large particles that stay in the vascular system are called what?
    Colliod Solutions
  36. What are some fluid additives?
    • Na Bicarnonate
    • KCL- Potassium Chloride
    • Calcium
    • 50% Dextrose
  37. When is oral electrolyte replacement used?
    • Mild to moderate dehydration
    • Farm animals
    • Some glucose for caloric supplementation.
  38. Name functions of the circulatory system.
    • Transports nutrients to tissue
    • Transport waste products away
    • Transport hormones
    • Maintenance of tissue enviroment
  39. Name the parts of the circulatory system in order of bloodflow to tissue.
  40. Which part of the circulatory system can close down or expand to alter bloodflow?
  41. ad. lib
    Freely, as wanted
  42. AD
    Right Ear
  43. AS
    Left Ear
  44. AU
    Both Ears
  45. b.i.d
    Twice a day
  46. EOD
    Every other day
  47. gtt.
    a drop
  48. OD
    Right Eye
  49. OS
    Left eye
  50. OU
    Both eyes
  51. p.r.n
    as required
  52. q4h
    Every 4 hours
  53. q6h
    Every 6 hours
  54. q.i.d
    4 times a day
  55. Rx
    prescription required
  56. s.i.d
    once a day
  57. SOAP
    subjective, objective, assessment, plan
  58. Sx
  59. tab.
    a tablet
  60. t.i.d
    Three times a day
Card Set:
Pharmacology- Exam 1
2013-02-03 06:16:12

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