Micro Chapter 3 Vocabulary

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Micro Chapter 3 Vocabulary
2013-02-03 03:40:39

Vocabulary words
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  1. Capsule
    A dense, well-defined polysaccharide or protein layer closely surrounding a cell.
  2. Chemotaxis
    Movement toward or away from a chemical.
  3. Dipicolinic acid
    A substance unique to endospores that confers heat resistance on these structures.
  4. Endospore
    • A differentiated cell formed within the cells of certain gram-positive
    • bacteria that is extremely resistant to heat as well as to other harmful
    • agents.
  5. Flagellum
    • A thin, filamentous organ of motility in prokaryotes that functions by
    • rotating. In motile eukaryotes, the flagellum, if present, moves by a
    • whiplike motion.
  6. Gas Vesicles
    A gas-filled structure made of protein; confers buoyancy on a cell when present in the cytoplasm in large numbers.
  7. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)
    Complex lipid structure containing unusual sugars and fatty acids found in most gram-negative Bacteria and constituting the chemical structure of the outer membrane.
  8. Magnetosome
    A small particle of Fe3O4 present in cells that exhibit magnetotaxis (magnetic bacteria).
  9. Morphology
    The shape of an organism.
  10. Outer membrane
    A phospholipid- and polysaccharide-containing unit membrane that lies external to the peptidoglycan layer in cells of gram-negative Bacteria.
  11. Peptidoglycan
    The rigid layer of the cell walls of Bacteria, a thin sheet composed of N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylmuramic acid, and a few amino acids.
  12. Periplasm
    The area between the cytoplasmic membrane and the outer membrane in gram-negative Bacteria.
  13. Peritrichous flagellation
    In flagellar arrangements, having flagella attached to many places on the cell surface.
  14. Phototaxis
    Movement of a cell toward light.
  15. Pilus (plural, pili)
    A fimbria-like structure that is present on fertile cells, both Hfr and F+, and is involved in DNA transfer during conjugation. Sometimes called a sex pilus. See also fimbria.
  16. Polar flagellation
    In flagellar arrangements, having flagella attached at one end or both ends of the cell.
  17. Poly-B-hydroxybutyrate (PHB)
    A common storage material of prokaryotic cells consisting of a polymer of B-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) or other B-alkanoic acids (PHA).
  18. Protoplast
    A cell from which the wall has been removed.
  19. Sterols
    Hydrophobic multiringed structures that strengthen the cytoplasmic membrane of eukaryotic cells and a few prokaryotes.
  20. Teichoic acid
    A phosphorylated polyalcohol found in the cell wall of some gram-positive Bacteria.