Micro Chapter 5 Vocabulary

Card Set Information

Micro Chapter 5 Vocabulary
2013-02-03 04:03:50

Chapter 5
Show Answers:

  1. Acidophile
    An organism that grows best at acidic pH values.
  2. Aerobe
    An organism that grows in the presence of O2; may be facultative, obligate, or microaerophilic.
  3. Aerotolerant anaerobe
    An anaerobic microorganism whose growth is not inhibited by O2.
  4. Alkaliphile
    An organism that grows best at high pH.
  5. Anaerobe
    An organism that grows in the absence of O2; some may even be killed by O2 (obligate or strict anaerobes).
  6. Anaerobe
    An organism that grows in the absence of O2; some may even be killed by O2 (obligate or strict anaerobes).
  7. Batch culture
    A closed-system microbial culture of fixed volume.
  8. Binary fission
    Cell division whereby a cell grows by intercalary growth to twice its minimum size and then divides to form two cells.
  9. Biofilm
    Microbial colonies encased in an adhesive, usually polysaccharide material and attached to a surface.
  10. Cardinal temperatures
    The minimum, maximum, and optimum growth temperatures for a given organism.
  11. Chemostat
    A continuous culture device controlled by the concentration of limiting nutrient and dilution rate.
  12. Compatible solutes
    Organic compounds (or potassium ions) that serve as cytoplasmic solutes to balance water relations for cells growing in environments of high salt or sugar.
  13. Divisome
    A complex of proteins that directs cell division processes in prokaryotes.
  14. Exponential growth
    Growth of a microbial population in which the cell number doubles within a fixed time period.
  15. Extreme halophile
    An organism whose growth is dependent on large concentrations (generally >9%) of NaCl.
  16. Extremophile
    An organism that grows optimally under one or more chemical or physical extremes, such as high or low temperature or pH.
  17. Facultative
    Indicates that an organism is able to grow in either the presence or absence of an environmental factor (for example, �facultative aerobe�).
  18. FtsZ
    A protein that forms a ring along the mid-cell division plane to initiate cell division.
  19. Generation time
    The time required for a cell population to double. See also doubling time.
  20. Growth
    In microbiology, an increase in cell number.
  21. Halophile
    An organism requiring salt (NaCl) for growth.
  22. Halotolerant
    Capable of growing in the presence of NaCl, but not requiring it.
  23. Hyperthermophile
    A prokaryote having a growth temperature optimum of 80�C or higher.
  24. Microaerophile
    An organism requiring O2 but at a level lower than that in air.
  25. Obligate
    Indicates an environmental condition always required for growth (for example, �obligate anaerobe�).
  26. Osmophile
    An organism that grows best in the presence of high levels of solute, typically a sugar.
  27. pH
    The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion (H+) concentration of a solution.
  28. Psychrophile
    An organism able to grow at low temperatures and showing a growth temperature optimum of <15�C.
  29. Plate count
    A viable counting method in which the number of colonies on a plate is used as a measure of cell number.
  30. Psychrotolerant
    Able to grow at low temperature but having a growth temperature optimum of <20�C.
  31. Thermophile
    An organism with a growth temperature optimum between 45 and 80�C.
  32. Viable
    Alive; able to reproduce.
  33. Xerophile
    An organism adapted to growth at very low water potentials.