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What was the first rocket,who made it and what proppelled it?
- a clay pigion
- Greek mathematician Archytas made it
- steam propelled it
Who launched the first satellite? What was it called? What satellites did Canada launch, when, and what were they used for? What were most satellites originally intended to be used for?
- Soviet Union
- Canada launched Alouette 1 on September 29th, 1962
What are the percents of the Payload, Machinery and Fuel of a rocket?
- Payload (air, water, food, satellites, crew quarters, & the astronauts): 6%
- Machinery (tanks, engines and fins): 3%
- Fuel: 91%
What substances can be used for fuel on a rocket or shuttle today?
liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen
What is the basic fundamental law of Physics that rocketry relies on?
For every action, there is an equal or opposite reaction
What are the aspects of Ion Drives and Solar Sails? What makes scientists believe these 2 things will be very advantageous in the future?
- Ion Drives- engines that use xenon gas instead of chemical fuels
- Solar Sails- use the sun's light for energy
- Scientists believe that Ion Drives may be an option for powering spacecrafts that could get astronauts to Mars. Some scienttists estimate that a spacecraft powered by solar sails could travel about 5 times as fast as a current spacecraft
What is the difference between a probe and a satellite? Are they manned or unmanned? Are there such things as natural satellites?
- Probes physically land and take samples on planets
- Satellites orbit planets
- They are unmanned
- Yes. The moon and rocks and planets
Tasks the Space Shuttles perform.
- Launch satellites
- Retrieve satellites
- Conduct expirements in zero gravity
What adavntage is there to conducting experiments in space?
There's zero gravity
What is a vacuum?
A place where there are no particles or anything. Nothing.
What are some environmental hazards while traveling in space?
- No air or water
- Damaging effects of cosmic rays and solar radiation
- Being hit by meteroids
- No atmosphere so temperatures can go from one extreme to another
- No pressure in the atmosphere, so there is no pressure to gegulate our heartbeats
Can astronauts experience Physical and Psychological problems in space?
- Yes. Because you are in a confined living space, spending every minute of every day with one person for long periods of time.
- You can't go outside to take a breather.
- Since there is no gravity your body starts to turn to jelly because your muscles aren't working hard.
What effects will zero gravity have on your body?
- Bones have less pressure on them so they expand
- The heart doesn't have to pump as hard to circulate blood
- Muscles used for walking and lifting weaken
- A person's visual depth perception is affected
What is gravity? What is microgravity?
- Gravity- the force of attraction between masses
- Microgravity- the condition in which the gravitational forces that act on a mass are greatly reduced
What things must a spacesuit include when an astronaut leaaves the shuttle?
- Heating system
- Cooling system
- Portable toilet
What substances are recycled over and over on the ISS?
Basically everything except for hydrogen and body heat
Why is the air pressure of Earth simulated on the ISS?
So that the astronauts can be healthy and function properly
What process produces oxygen on the ISS?
Electrolysis. It uses electricity to split water molecules into their component elements: hydrogen and oxygen
What is a geosynchronous orbit?
The satellite moves at the same rate as Earth spins. They stay in one position above earth, so that they can observe the same area at all times
What purposes do the 2 Canadian satellites RADARSAT and LANDSAT have?
- To follow ships at sea
- Monitor sail quality
- Track forest fires
- Report an environmental change
- Search for natural resources
What is remote sensing?
A process in which imaging devices in a satellite make observations of Earth's surface and send information back to earth
What is the purpose of GPS? How many satellites does it need?
- To give people directions and their location on the ground
What is a spin-off?
Things that were created for use in space but have been updated so that we can use them in our everyday lives on Earth
Who made the first telescope? Who was the first person to document things seen in the night sky?
Why are telescopes in space better? Where should we build telescopes on earth and why?
- Because there is nothing (except for asteroids meteroids, spacejunk etc.) in the way of it. ex. pollution, clouds, moisture, etc. You'd be closer to the object, getting better quality pictures
- On remote mountains because they are away from many of the interferances.
The various aspects/purposes of optical telescopes? Radio Telescopes? Hubble? How many lenses or mirrors does each of these have? What are the benefits of each? When can they be used? Day? Night?
- Optical (reflecting & refracting)- they can see visible light. 2 lenses, 2 mirrors, Night. They gather and focus light. The more telescopes, the better the image
- Radio- they can see all light except for visible light. None. Not affected by clouds, pollution or the atmosphere like light waves are. Both day and night
- Hubble- In space, so nothing interferes. Series of mirrors. Better quality, clearer images. 24/7.
What things affect each of these types of telescopes? (Optical, radio and Hubble)
- Optical- Wind, water, pollution etc.
- Radio- Nothing
- Hubble- Space junk, meteors, asteroids, etc.
What is Interferometry? What is an array? If 2 radio telescopes were 40m apart, how big of a telescope would they be simulating?
- Interferometry- A techniquie of combing the observations of 2 or more telescopes to produce images that have better resolution than what one telescope alone could produce
- Array- order or arrangement
- It would be a 40m telescope
What dangers does the Hubble have? ISS have?
- Hubble- floating space junk
- ISS- floating space junk
Know the components of reflecting and refracting telescopes. (Ex. Secondary mirrow, Primary light-gathering lens/mirror, eyepiece lens, etc.)
- Reflecting- uses mirrors
- left- primary light-gathering mirror
- bottom right- secondary mirror
- top right- eye piece lens
- beside eye piece lense- focus on the left
- Refracting- uses lenses
- top left- primary light-gathering lens
- bottom right- eye piece lens
Know the electromagnetic spectrum, all the different types of radiation, what types get absorbed by the atmosphere, what bodies emit x-rays, which we use to see distant planets in other solar systems.
- Ultra Violet
- Gamma Rays
- X-rays are emitted by black holes and pulsating stars
- We use thermal to see distant stars
What is wavelength? Frequency? How are they related?
- Wavelength-it's a measurement of the distance from one point on a wave (such as the crest) to the same point on the next wave. Crest- low point Trough- high point
- Frequency- it's the number of waves that pass a single point in one second
- Energy with a high frequency has a short wavelength and energy with a low frequency has a long wavelength
How to estimate distance using triangulation? What 3 things do you need?
- By measuring the angles between a baseline and the target object.
- baseline, 2 angles, target (distant object)
What is the difference between a probe and a satellite? What tasks have probes carried out?
- Probes physically land and take samples on planets
- Satellites orbit planets
- Galileo probe gathered information about the composition of Jupiter's atmosphere. The Mars Pathfinder took soil samples and performed geological tests on the planet's rocks, then sent the data back to earth.
What is parallax? How does moving an object closer or farther affect the shift?
- Parallax- the apparent shift in position of a nearby object against a distant background when the object is viewed from 2 different positions
- The shift is greater when the object is closer. vice versa.
What bodies have been explored by humans in our solar system?
- moon and Earth were explored by humans
- Mars, Venus (attempted) and Mercury have been explored by satellites and probes
What is a spectroscope? What does a spectroscope show? The black lines represent what?
- Spectroscope- an instrument used by astronomers to observe and measure the spectrum of a star
- It shows the spectrum of a star
- They represent what elements make up that star
The Doppler effect! What happens to the sound waves and light? What does a blue shift or red shift in the spectra indicate? What does no shift indicate?
- Doppler effect- the apparent change in frequency of sound, light, and other waves as the observer and the wave source move towards or away from each other
- When an object is coming towards you, the soundwaves (lightwaves) get compressed and the noise becomes louder. As it moves away, the soundwaves (lightwaves) stretch out and the sound fades.
- It shows whether the bodies are moving towards or away from earth. No shift in the spectrum means that the star and Earth are moving in the same direction and same pace.
The stages in the life cycle of a star.
- top- nebula to sun-like star, to red giant, to white dwarf to black dwarf
- bottom- nebula to massive star- to red supergiant, to super nova, to either black hole or neutron star
- Everything after the main sequence is later on in the stars life.
- Main sequence and before are the early stages
- A nebula isn't a star
How an ellipse is affected by the distance of the focus'. What if there were 3 focus' in a triangle? What if there were 4 focus" in a square?
- The farther the focus', the ellipse will be more oval shaped
- The shape will be a circle even if the focus' were in a triangle or square
Terrestrial Plantets vs Jovian Planets.
- Terrestrial:Mercury is the closest planet to the sun, and has the shortest orbit of 88 days.
- Venus is most like earth, and is known as “earth’s twin,” and is the hottest planet, reaching temperatures 450o. The average surface temperature is 480o.
- Earth is the only planet that has water in all 3 states.
- Mars- Like Venus and Earth, Mars has canyons, valleys and extinct volcanos.
- Jovian: Jupiter is the largest planet and it has very thin rings. It’s the planet that has the most (28) moons.
- Saturn has the most distinct ring system
- Uranus-Because of its axis of rotation, it’s tilted toward the plane of its orbit which makes it appear to roll during its orbit. It has a large ring system.
- Neptune has a ring system.
- Pluto has 2 moons and is the coldest planet, with the surface temperature of -230oC. It also has the longest orbit of 248 years.
Distinguish differences between Azimuth, Altitude and Zenith.
- Azimuth- the angle between the most northerly point of the horizon and the point directly below a celestial body; goes up to 360o.
- Altitude- the height of a celestial body above the horizon, ranging from 0 at sea level to 90o straight up.
- Zenith- the highest point in the sky directly overhead. 90o
Know when you should use Altutude or Azimuth
- Altitude- the height above the horizon
- Azimuth- north, south, east, west
Disadvantages and Advantages of Ion Drives and Solar Sails.
- Ion drives use xenon gas and it lasts a long time. Has a thrust to get it started
- Solar sails goes 5 times faster and uses the sun's light so it never runs out
When did the US launch the first shuttle? USSR launch the first satellite? ISS get completed? Canada launch Anik I and Alouette I?
- USSR launch the first satellite: 1st
- Canada launch Anik I and Alouette I: 2nd
- US launch the first shuttle: 3rd
- ISS get completed: 4th
Keck I telescope get made? Hubble Space telescope get launched? Galileo see Jupiter through the telescope? Hans Lippershey make the telescope?
- Hans Lippershey made the first telescope: 1st
- Galileo saw Jupiter through the telescope: 2nd
- Keck I telescope got made: 3rd
- Hubble Space telescope got launched: 4th
Challenger explode? Apollo 11 land on the moon? 3 crew members of Apollo 1 die? Soviet satellite fall to earth over Canada? Canadarm 1 and 2 created?
- 3 crew members of Apollo 1 die: 1st
- Apollo 11 lands on the moon: 2nd
- Challenger explodes: 3rd
- Soviet satellite falls to earth over Canada: 4th
- Canadarm 2 is created: 5th
What items get recycled on Space Shuttles and the ISS?
- Everything except for hydrogen and body heat
- (hydrogen gets vented)
Be able to distinguish between a Physical and Psychological effect.
- Physical- affects your body
- Psychological- affects your mind
Be able to distinguish between a Political, Environmental, and Ethical issue.
- Political (laws): Who owns space? Who has the right to use the resources in space? Who will determine how space will be used?
- Ethical (Right or wrong): Is it right to spend money on space exploration rather than solving problems on Earth? Do we have a right to alter materials in space to meet our needs? How can we ensure that space resources will be used for the good of humans and not to further the interests of only one nation or group?
- Environmental (environment): Who is responsible for protecting space environments from alteration? Who is responsible for cleaning up space junk, and who should pay for doing it?
What times would you want to use an orbiting satellite or a geosynchronous satellite?
- Orbiting- when you want to see everything on the planet
- Geosynchronous- when you only want to be monitering one area on the planet
What is a spin-off? What items do we have today as a result of the space age?
- Spinoff-things that were created for use in space but have been updated so that we can use them in our everyday lives on Earth
- ex. runners, planes, solar panels, vents/heating system, satelite, blankets, computers etc.
What are the differences and similarities between the 4 different types of telescopes?
- Reflecting: eyepiece, mirrors
- Refracting: eyepiece, lenses
- Hubble: (segmented) series of mirrors
- Radio: Neither. Uses radio waves
What are each of these probes noted for doing? Venera, Voyager, Galileo? Pathfinder?
- Venera-1982: Venus landing
- Voyagers 1&2-1977(launched): Flyby of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus & Neptune
- Galileo-1995: Flyby of Jupiter
- Mars Pathfinder-2000: Mars landing
Types of electromagnetic radiation in order of wavelength? Frequency?
- Thermal Infrared
- Gamma Rays
- Long waves = low frequency
- Short waves = high frequency
When would you use Parallax or Triangulation to estimate distance?
- Parallax- When you're trying to find the distance of something in space
- Triangulation- When you're trying to find the distance of something on earth
Be able to rank stars from the most hot to cold according to color.
What tasks has the Canadarm carried out? When was it made?
- Retrieved satellites, helped fix optical apparatus on the Hubble Space Telescope, and put together modules of the International Space Station (ISS)
Why is Canadarm 2 better? When was it made? Where is it used?
- It's able to grasp objects with its computer controlled fingers & it can also move itself around the outside of the ISS
- Landed in 2001
- It's used in space
Who was the first Canadian in space? Who was the first femal Canadian in space? Who was the first Canadian to walk in space?
- Marc Garneau (October 1984)
- Roberta Bondar (1992)
- Chris Hadfield (2001)
What major city had the first ever magnetic observatory to study the Aurora Borealis Northern Lights)?
Canada was the ___ nation to send a satellite into space.
What was the Canadian contribution in the Apollo 11 mission? What contribution did Canada make to the Mars mission? What did Canada make for the shuttle? What did Canada make for the ISS?
- It built the landing gear
- It built the ramp
- Canadarm 2
What are some logical reasons for investing money into space research?
To discover other places to live
What are some of the possible uses of moon rock?
The hydrogen could be used as fuel for lunar bases and space travel. The oxygen could be used for life support. Combine the 2 and you have a readily available supply of water.
What valuable minerals have been discovered to be present on asteroids?
- They contain iron, gold and platinum group metals.
- (A 200 000-t asteroid would yield more than $350 billion worth of mineral resources)
What are the names of the two Mars moons?
Phobos and Deimos