Psychology 101

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  1. What is Psychology? (new)
    • It is the scientific studey of behavior and mental processes.
    • -(Study of the Mind and Brain)
    • -Comes from Philosophy and Biology
  2. Aristotle
    • Naturalist/Philosopher
    • Suggested soul and body are NOT separate
    • Knowledge grows from experience
  3. William Wundt
    • Developed 1st psychology lab in 1879
    • Studied the mind objectively and scientifically
    • Father of INTROSPECTION.
  4. Introspection ( Self Observation)
    Method in whice trained observers reflect and report their mental experiences.
  5. Edward Titchner
    • Father of STRUCTURALISM
    • 3 Basic Elements: Sensation, Feelings, Images.
    • Contribution: Systematic Observations
  6. Structuralism
    School/Theory of Psychology that aimed to identify the basic elements or structures of psychological experience.
  7. William James
    • Offered 1st  lecture on Psychology
    • Father of FUNCTIONALISM
    • Wrote "Principles of Psychology" 1890
  8. Functionalism
    School/ Theory of pscyhology that aimed to understand the adaptive purposes/funtions of mental and behavioral processes. (adapt, survive)
  9. John B. Watson
    • Father of BEHAVIORISM
    • Baby Albert experiement
    • Said psychology is observable, measurable behavior.
    • 1st student to recieve Ph.D in psychology.
    • Turned away from conciousness.
  10. Behaviorism
    Aims to uncover the laws of learning by looking outside the organism such as REWARDS & PUNISHMENTS in environment.
  11. B.F. Skinner
    • Studied with Watson
    • Carried on Behaviorism
    • Pigons, Rewards, and Punishments
  12. What is Psychology by the earlier days definition?
    Science of mental life.
  13. Jean Piaget
    • Swiss psychologist- childrens adaptations
    • Father of COGNITIVISM.
  14. Cognitivism
    That seeks to describe the mental processes involved in thinking that affects behavior.
  15. Sigmund Freud
    • Austrian physician, neuroligist
    • Father of PSYCHOANALYSIS.
  16. Psychoanalysis
    Attributed thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and its effects on human behavior.
  17. Humanistic Psychology
    • Maslow & Rogers
    • It emphasizes how current environmental influences affect one's growth potential and need for love and acceptance.
  18. Psychology's Biggest Question
    Nature(biology) vs. Nurture(environment) -most controversial
  19. Psychology's 3 Main Levels of Analysis
    • 1. Biological- genetics
    • 2. Psychological- emotions, responses
    • 3.Social/ Cultural- environment
  20. Counseling
    Assists people with problems in living (crisis & challenges) and improves their personal and social functioning.
  21. Psychiatrist
    Prescribes medicine
  22. Naive Realism
    • We see the world as it is.
    • We trust out perceptions, but its decieving.
  23. Cognitive Biases
    Hindsight bias, Overconfidence, Heuristics, Belief Perseverance, Critical Thinking.
  24. Hindsight Bias
    Tendency to overestimate no well we could have successfully forecasted known outcomes.
  25. Overconfidence
    Tendency to overestimate our ability to make correct predictions.
  26. Heuristics
    Mental shortcuts that help us make judgments, solve problems, and make sense of out world.
  27. Belief Perseverence
    The tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them.
  28. Critical thinking
    • A set of skills for evaluationg all claims in an open-minded and careful fashion.
    • It examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assess.
  29. Scientific Method
    The formulation and experimental testing of hypothesis about natural events and relationships.
  30. Hypothesis
    • A testable prediction, often dirived from a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory.
    • Directs our research
  31. Case Study
    A research design that examines one person or a small number of people in depth, over an extended time period to reveal underlying behavioral principles.
  32. Naturalistic Observation
    Watching behavior in real world settings.
  33. Correlational Design/ Research
    • When one trait or behavior accompanies another we say the two correlation.
  34. Experiement
    A controlled condition in which an independent variable is manipulation and changes in a dependent variable are studied.
  35. Experiemental Design includes
    • 1. Random Assignment of participants
    • 2. Manipulation of Independent variables
  36. Experimental group
    Recieves manipulation
  37. Control group
    Does not recieve the manipulation
  38. Independent Variable
    • A factor manipulated by the experimenter.
    • The effect is the focus of the study.
  39. Dependent Variable
    A factor that may change in response to an independent variable.
  40. Standard Deviation
    A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean.
  41. When is an Observed Difference reliable?
    • 1. Representative samples are better than biased samples.
    • 2.Less-variable observations are more reliable than more variable ones.
    • 3. More cases are better than fewer cases.
  42. Biological Psychology
    Study of brain and behavior
  43. Neuron
    • Individual nerve cell that form the basic structure of the nervous system.
    • Recieves and send messages.
    • "Brains Communicators"
  44. Sensory Neurons
    Carry INCOMING messages to brain/spinal cord
  45. Motor Neurons
    Carry OUTGOING information from CNS to muscles and glands.
  46. Interneurons
    • Carry messages from one neuron to another.
    • 99% of the work
  47. Cell body
    Life suppor center of the neuron
  48. Dedrites
    • Branching extenstions of cell body
    • Recieving portion of neuron.
  49. Axon
    • Sending portion of neuron.
    • Covered by myelin sheath.
  50. Myelin Sheath
    Fatty covering of axon that insulate neuron signals, speeds up messages through neurons
  51. Threshold
    Level of stiulation required to trigger a neural impulse
  52. Synapse
    Junction between axon tip of sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of recieving neuron.
  53. Neurotransmitters
    Chemical messengers secreted by neurons whice are released at the synapse and alter activity in the recieving neuron inspecialize in communication.
  54. How do Neurotransmitters influence us?
    They affect certain behaviors and emotions.
  55. Central Nervous System
    Brain and Spinal Cord
  56. Peripheral Nervous System
    • The sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body.
    • Nerves extend outside the CNS.
  57. Somatic Nervous System
    Controls the voluntary movements of the body's skeletal muscles and behavior.
  58. Autonomic Nervous System
    • Controls the glands and other muscles of internal organs.
    • Helps us experience and express emotions.
  59. 2 Nervous Systems under Autonomic
    • a. Sympathetic NS- AROUSES the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
    • b. (Division os the ANS) CALMS the body, conserving its energy, active during rest and digestion.
  60. Nerves
    • Are neural "cables" containing many axons.
    • Part of PNS.
  61. Endocrine System
    • The body's "slow" chemical communication system.
    • Carried out by hormones synthesized by a set of glands.
  62. Hormones
    Chemicals secreted by the endocrine glands that produce physical or psychological changes.
  63. Pituitary Gland
    • "Master Gland"
    • Controls the hypothalamus and other bodily glands.
  64. Forebrain( Cerebrum)
    The forward part which is most highly developed area in human brain controls advanced intellectual abilites.
  65. Cerebral Cortex
    • Largest component of the forebrain.
    • Responsible for higher brain function-ability to talk, think, and reason.
  66. Parts of Cerebral Cortex
    • Frontal Lobe-front, motor function, language, abstract thinking, memory
    • Parietal Lobe- Top back, sensory input for touch, motor functions, connecting vision.
    • Occipital Lobe-Vision, taking in
    • Temporal Lobe- Hearing, language, comprehension
  67. Thalamus
    • Sensory switchboard that processes sensory information.
    • Located at top of brainstem.
    • Acts as sensory GATEWAY to cerebral cortex.
  68. Medulla
    • Located closest to the spinal cord.
    • Involves with reflexes and vital functions as swallowing, heartbeat, and breathing.
  69. Hindbrain(Cerebellum)
    • "Little Brain"
    • A miniature version of the cerebral cortex.
    • It's main functions are its responsibility for balance, motor skills, and coordination of movement.
  70. Limbic System
    • Emotional center of the brain that also plays roles in smell, motivation, and memory.
    • Autonomic
  71. Hypothalamus
    • Body temperature, thermostat, regulates body emotions.
    • Constant internal bodily state.
  72. Left side of Brain
    Reading, writing, math, communication, comprehension
  73. Right
    Artistic, creative, imagionative
Card Set:
Psychology 101
2013-02-04 17:04:46

Test 1: Intro, Chapter 1 & 2
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