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What is Psychology? (new)
- It is the scientific studey of behavior and mental processes.
- -(Study of the Mind and Brain)
- -Comes from Philosophy and Biology
- Suggested soul and body are NOT separate
- Knowledge grows from experience
- Developed 1st psychology lab in 1879
- Studied the mind objectively and scientifically
- Father of INTROSPECTION.
Introspection ( Self Observation)
Method in whice trained observers reflect and report their mental experiences.
- Father of STRUCTURALISM
- 3 Basic Elements: Sensation, Feelings, Images.
- Contribution: Systematic Observations
School/Theory of Psychology that aimed to identify the basic elements or structures of psychological experience.
- Offered 1st lecture on Psychology
- Father of FUNCTIONALISM
- Wrote "Principles of Psychology" 1890
School/ Theory of pscyhology that aimed to understand the adaptive purposes/funtions of mental and behavioral processes. (adapt, survive)
John B. Watson
- Father of BEHAVIORISM
- Baby Albert experiement
- Said psychology is observable, measurable behavior.
- 1st student to recieve Ph.D in psychology.
- Turned away from conciousness.
Aims to uncover the laws of learning by looking outside the organism such as REWARDS & PUNISHMENTS in environment.
- Studied with Watson
- Carried on Behaviorism
- Pigons, Rewards, and Punishments
What is Psychology by the earlier days definition?
Science of mental life.
- Swiss psychologist- childrens adaptations
- Father of COGNITIVISM.
That seeks to describe the mental processes involved in thinking that affects behavior.
- Austrian physician, neuroligist
- Father of PSYCHOANALYSIS.
Attributed thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and its effects on human behavior.
- Maslow & Rogers
- It emphasizes how current environmental influences affect one's growth potential and need for love and acceptance.
Psychology's Biggest Question
Nature(biology) vs. Nurture(environment) -most controversial
Psychology's 3 Main Levels of Analysis
- 1. Biological- genetics
- 2. Psychological- emotions, responses
- 3.Social/ Cultural- environment
Assists people with problems in living (crisis & challenges) and improves their personal and social functioning.
- We see the world as it is.
- We trust out perceptions, but its decieving.
Hindsight bias, Overconfidence, Heuristics, Belief Perseverance, Critical Thinking.
Tendency to overestimate no well we could have successfully forecasted known outcomes.
Tendency to overestimate our ability to make correct predictions.
Mental shortcuts that help us make judgments, solve problems, and make sense of out world.
The tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them.
- A set of skills for evaluationg all claims in an open-minded and careful fashion.
- It examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assess.
The formulation and experimental testing of hypothesis about natural events and relationships.
- A testable prediction, often dirived from a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory.
- Directs our research
A research design that examines one person or a small number of people in depth, over an extended time period to reveal underlying behavioral principles.
Watching behavior in real world settings.
Correlational Design/ Research
- When one trait or behavior accompanies another we say the two correlation.
- CORRELATION DOES NOT IMPLY CAUSATION.
A controlled condition in which an independent variable is manipulation and changes in a dependent variable are studied.
Experiemental Design includes
- 1. Random Assignment of participants
- 2. Manipulation of Independent variables
Does not recieve the manipulation
- A factor manipulated by the experimenter.
- The effect is the focus of the study.
A factor that may change in response to an independent variable.
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean.
When is an Observed Difference reliable?
- 1. Representative samples are better than biased samples.
- 2.Less-variable observations are more reliable than more variable ones.
- 3. More cases are better than fewer cases.
Study of brain and behavior
- Individual nerve cell that form the basic structure of the nervous system.
- Recieves and send messages.
- "Brains Communicators"
Carry INCOMING messages to brain/spinal cord
Carry OUTGOING information from CNS to muscles and glands.
- Carry messages from one neuron to another.
- 99% of the work
Life suppor center of the neuron
- Branching extenstions of cell body
- Recieving portion of neuron.
- Sending portion of neuron.
- Covered by myelin sheath.
Fatty covering of axon that insulate neuron signals, speeds up messages through neurons
Level of stiulation required to trigger a neural impulse
Junction between axon tip of sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of recieving neuron.
Chemical messengers secreted by neurons whice are released at the synapse and alter activity in the recieving neuron inspecialize in communication.
How do Neurotransmitters influence us?
They affect certain behaviors and emotions.
Central Nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord
Peripheral Nervous System
- The sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body.
- Nerves extend outside the CNS.
Somatic Nervous System
Controls the voluntary movements of the body's skeletal muscles and behavior.
Autonomic Nervous System
- Controls the glands and other muscles of internal organs.
- Helps us experience and express emotions.
2 Nervous Systems under Autonomic
- a. Sympathetic NS- AROUSES the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
- b. (Division os the ANS) CALMS the body, conserving its energy, active during rest and digestion.
- Are neural "cables" containing many axons.
- Part of PNS.
- The body's "slow" chemical communication system.
- Carried out by hormones synthesized by a set of glands.
Chemicals secreted by the endocrine glands that produce physical or psychological changes.
- "Master Gland"
- Controls the hypothalamus and other bodily glands.
The forward part which is most highly developed area in human brain controls advanced intellectual abilites.
- Largest component of the forebrain.
- Responsible for higher brain function-ability to talk, think, and reason.
Parts of Cerebral Cortex
- Frontal Lobe-front, motor function, language, abstract thinking, memory
- Parietal Lobe- Top back, sensory input for touch, motor functions, connecting vision.
- Occipital Lobe-Vision, taking in
- Temporal Lobe- Hearing, language, comprehension
- Sensory switchboard that processes sensory information.
- Located at top of brainstem.
- Acts as sensory GATEWAY to cerebral cortex.
- Located closest to the spinal cord.
- Involves with reflexes and vital functions as swallowing, heartbeat, and breathing.
- "Little Brain"
- A miniature version of the cerebral cortex.
- It's main functions are its responsibility for balance, motor skills, and coordination of movement.
- Emotional center of the brain that also plays roles in smell, motivation, and memory.
- Body temperature, thermostat, regulates body emotions.
- Constant internal bodily state.
Left side of Brain
Reading, writing, math, communication, comprehension
Artistic, creative, imagionative