Anthro7:Week3

Card Set Information

Author:
dante01
ID:
197670
Filename:
Anthro7:Week3
Updated:
2013-02-04 01:55:40
Tags:
Midterm
Folders:

Description:
study
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user dante01 on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What makes an animal a primate?
    • 1. Features of hand & feet
    • -Opposable thumb and big toe
    • -grasping hands
    • -sensitive finger tips
    • -hindlimb dominance
    • 2. Features of sensory organs
    • -highly developed vision
    • -large eyes, increasing frontation
    • 3. Features of life history
    • -small liters
    • -long pregnancy 
    • -long juvenile period
    • -long maternal care period
    • 4. Large Brain
    • 5. Most live in groups
    • 6. Reduced number of teeth 
  2. Prosimians
    • -Most primitive primates
    • -Most are solitary 
    • -some retain claws
    • -some have acute sense of smell
  3. Prosimians divided into two groups:
    • 1. Lorises
    • -Africa & Asia
    • -nocturnal
    • -small
    • -solitary
    • -eat fruit, gum, insects
    • 2. Lemurs
    • -only on Madagascar
    • -nocturnal/diurnal/cathermeral
    • -variable in size
    • -variable in social organization
    • -variable in diet
    • -female dominance common
  4. Lorises come in two varieties
    • -Fast and slow
    • -Galagos are fast
    • -Lorises are slow
  5. Example of lemur
    • 1. Ring-tail lemur
    • 2. Dwarf lemur
  6. Anthropoids
    • 1.New World Monkeys
    • 2. Old World Monkeys and Apes
  7. New World Monkeys
    • • Mexico, Central & South America
    • • Small-bodied species
    • • Cooperative
    • • Prehensile Tails: able to grasp and hold on objects
    • • Mainly diurnal
    • • Mainly arboreal
    • • Mainly in tropical forests
    • • Mainly quadrupedal
    • • Dental formula: 2:1:3:3
  8. Old World Monkeys & Apes
    • • Africa & Asia
    • • All diurnal
    • • Some arboreal, some terrestial
    • • Broad habitat range
    • • Mainly quadrupedal
    • • Dental formula 2:1:2:3
  9. Example of New World Monkeys
    1. Owl monkey
  10. The two major groups of New World monkeys
    • 1. cebids
    • 2. callitrichids
    • -claw-like nails
    • -one few molar
    • -polyandrous setting: many males and one female
  11. The two major groups of Old World monkeys
    • 1. cercopithecines
    • 2. colobines
  12. Hylobatids (lesser apes)
    • 1. Gibbons
    • -frugivores
    • -territorial
    • -pair-bonded
  13. Great apes
    • 1. Orangutans
    • -solitary
    • -frugivorous
    • 2. gorillas
    • -one-male groups
    • -vegetarians
    • -group cohesive
    • -males defend group
    • -infanticide risk high
    • 3. chimpanzees
    • -common chimp
    • -hunt monkeys and eat meat
    • -make tools
    • -males cooperate
    • 4. bonobos
    • -strong female-female bonds
    • -vegetarian, don't hunt
    • -little tool use
  14. Catarrhines Super families
    1.  the Cercopithecoidea (Old World monkeys) 2. the Hominoidea (apes and humans).
  15. Costs of living in groups
    • 1. Availability of partners
    • -Peers
    • -Mates
    • -Kin
    • 2. Intensity of competition
    • -Resources
    • -Mates
    • -Group membership
  16. Major benefits of group life
    • 1. Protection versus predators
    • 2. Better access to resources
    • 3. Access to potential mates
  17. How is sociality an effective anti-predator strategy?
    • 1. Detection
    • 2. Dilution
    • 3. Deterrence
  18. The distribution of food affects the nature of competition
    • 1. Dispersed
    • -low value resources
    • -scramble competition
    • -food items not worth fighting over
    • 2. Clumped
    • -valuable resources
    • -resources are scarce and worth fighting for
    • -contest competition
  19. What strategies do females use to enhance reproductive success?
    • 1. Care
    • 2. Competition
    • 3. Cooperation
  20. Components of female fitness
    • 1. Length of reproductive career
    • 2. infant survivorship
    • 3. interbirth interval 
  21. Female fitness depends on 
    • 1. Quality of care to infants
    • 2. Ability to compete effectively with competitors
    • 3. Cooperation in competitive situations
    • 4. Balance between quality and quantity of offspring 
  22. Expect males to invest when
    • 1. finding additional mates difficult 
    • 2. fitness of kids raised by one parent low
  23. Intersexual selection
    -selection favors traits that make males more attractive to females
  24. Intrasexual selection
    -selection favors traits that make males more successful in male-male competition
  25. Sexual selection favors traits that
    increase success in competition for mates
  26. Male-male competition favors 
    • -large body size
    • -horns
    • -antlers
    • -large canines
  27. Male mating success is therefore primarily limited by
    the number of fertile females to which they have access
  28. Female reproductive strategies 
    • 1.investing a good deal of time and energy in her offspring
    • 2. the careful choosing of mates
    • 3. coalitioning to protect their offspring from infanticidal males
  29. Male reproductive strategies
    • 1. Competition among themselves
    • 2. Infanticide 
    • 3. Mate guarding
    • -staying in proximity of female and aggressively chasing away rival males
    • - strategy used against less dominant males
    • 4. Mate-herding
    • - controlling female movements away from groups of other males

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview