Planetary Atmospheres Exam 1 Definitions

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Author:
DrGirlfriend
ID:
197715
Filename:
Planetary Atmospheres Exam 1 Definitions
Updated:
2013-02-03 20:07:01
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Astronomy
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Exam 1 Definitions
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  1. Atmosphere
    • A mixture of gases and particles subjected to the gravitational pull of a planet and illuminated by radiant energy from a nearby
    • star

    -Chemical composition

    -Temperature

    -Vertical structure

    -Surface pressure
  2. Earth's Atmosphere
    -N2 = 78%, O2 = 21%, Ar = 0.9%

    -No H2O vapor

    -Every 5km, P2 and D2 = ½(P1 + D1)

    -Trace Gases: O3 = ozone mostly in strato, 19% higher than 1970
  3. N2 origin
    volcanic emission
  4. H2O Origin
    volcanic emissions, outgassed, condensed, formed oceans
  5. O2 Origin
    • Life
    • - photosynthesis
    • - respiration

    Mars/Venus = no oceans = higher levels of CO2
  6. Things that affect the atmosphere
    Wind, temperature (Ideal Gas Law), H2O content, solar radiation
  7. Gas
    A collection of molecules that move randomly
  8. Collision Frequency
    Number of collisions per second by a single molecule
  9. Mean Free Path
    Avg distance a molecule travels before colliding again
  10. Kinetic Energy
    Energy of movement, conserved



    k = 1.38*10^-23
  11. Layers of the Atmosphere
    Troposphere

    Stratosphere

    Mesosphere

    Thermosphere

    Exosphere
  12. Troposphere
    "tropos" = Greek, changing/turning

    80% total mass of atmosphere

    0 = 11 km

    T decreases with z

    weather

    exchanges chemicals with the land and ocean

    ~1/2 solar radiation penetrates and is absorbed by the ground
  13. Stratosphere
    "strato" = stable/stratified

    11 - 50 km

    T increases with z

    Heat source = ozone absorbs UV

    weak vertical mixing and long residence times for gases and particles

    active chemistry = formation of ozone (O3)
  14. Mesosphere
    "Meso" = middle/intermediate

    strato + meso = middle atmosphere

    50 - 90 km

    T decreases with z

    contains 2% of total O3

    UV = chemical reaction
  15. Thermosphere
    "Thermo" = hot

    90 - 500 km

    Low density

    T increases z

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