Card Set Information
Introduction to biology of microorganisms
Name the 3 types of microorganisms.
: obligate intracellular parasites
: e.g. algae, fungi, yeast, mold
Who coined the term "cell?"
Who is Robert Hooke?
-first who saw cells (cork &plant)
-discovered what individual cells were
-first who saw fungi under compound microscope
Who was the first person to see bacteria, a prokaryotic organism?
Antoni Van Leeuwenhook
What did Louis Pasteur prove & how?
That the spontaneous generation didn't exist. He proved this through the pasteurization process with boiling water, a curved tube, and the p-trap.
Who started the idea of vaccinology?
Who created the vaccine for smallpox and how?
-found that the cows
have cowpox and gave milkmaids cowpox; it protected the maids from smallpox
-took scab off a
cow, ground it up, put it in the arm of a child; didn’t get sick & die
Describe the 4 levels of biosafety.
Level 1: Safe organisms
: Organisms that we can
keep control of (E. coli, vaccinia, corona viruses)
: Organisms that will kill
both animals, food sources & humans. Minimal treatment for these. Wipes out pigs (African swine fever virus).
Have much more economic and ecological impact.
: Most Dangerous; E. bola, hendra.
Organisms that there are no treatments for whatsoever. Will quarantine you.
ways of growing organisms on agar media?
What are the 5 components of Koch's postulates?
1) disease where all organisms have the
same symptoms (same bug)
2) can isolate the agent in pure
3) can infect healthy
individuals with pure culture of isolates,
4) get identical symptoms,
5) and then reisolate the same microorganism.
Can we prove Koch's postulates with humans? Why or why not?
With humans, can’t prove Koch’s postulates because of ethical issues, so you'd infect a
host that would invoke a similar response e.g. chimps.
Who coined the term "chemotherapy" and established the discipline of immunology?
-Worked with microorganisms with sulfur
and nitrogen fixation
-Set the stage for making enrichment
-made media that lacked a nitrogen
-started idea that you can make
agar that allows you to select for particular organisms (selectable media that
can target a microorganism)
-coined the term “virus”
-took infected tobacco plants, ground
them, put them through porcelain filter that holds back bacteria (tobacco
-Beijernick repeated his work and
determined, coined the term “virus”
Name 5 examples of how microorganisms are used.
2. Making food
3. Protection, Medicine,
Bacterial/Microbial Flora (microorganisms growing in your body and are
beneficial; e.g. for digestion, fighting off other organisms)
4. Biotechnology/Molecular Biology
e.g. plasmids, restriction enzymes, GMO, bioremediation
5. Biological weapons e.g. anthrax
Describe the RNA hypothesis.
-RNA made from nitrogen (majority) and
-RNA can make proteins
-other macromolecules were made,
-organism that contains
component w/ lipid membrane
-DNA made! .
: Organism with more complex
structures (DNA WORLD)
What is the difference between the subsurface hypothesis and the surface hypothesis?
-under the water