BIO 208 Flashcards

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BIO 208 Flashcards
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2013-02-07 16:24:37
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BIO 208 Anatomy Physiology
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All sorts of questions/flashcards for anatomy and physiology (BIO 208)
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  1. Define anatomy and explain the importance of understanding the relationship between structure and function.
    Anatomy is the scientific discipline that investigates the structure of the body. Anatomy examines the relationship between the structure of a body part and its function.The structure of body parts allows them to perform specific function.
  2. Define physiology and state two major goals of physiology.
    Physiology is the scientific discipline that deals with the processes or functions of living things. The major goals of physiology are (1) to understand and predict the body's responses to stimuli, and (2) to understand how the body maintains conditions within a narrow range of values in the presence of a continually changing environment
  3. Describe 6 different ways or levels at which anatomy and physiology can be considered.
    Systemic anatomy is the study of the body by systems. Regional anatomy is the study of the organization of the body by areas. Surface anatomy is the study of external features which serve as landmarks for locating deeper structures. Human physiology is the study of a specific organism (human). Cellular physiology emphasizes the study of cells. Systemic physiology emphasizes the study of systems.
  4. From smallest to largest, list and define the body's six levels of organization.
    • 1. Chemical (interactions between atoms)
    • 2. Cellular (contain organelles)
    • 3. Tissue (groups of similar cells and the material surrounding them)
    • 4. Organ (two or more tissue types that together perform one or more common functions)
    • 5. Organ System (a group of organs classified as a unity because of a common function or set of functions)
    • 6. Organism (any living thing considered as a whole)
  5. What are the 4 primary tissue types?
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  6. Which two organ systems are responsible for regulating the other organ systems?
    • Nervous system
    • Endocrine system
  7. Which two organ systems are responsible for support and movement?
    • Muscular system
    • Skeletal system
  8. What is the function of the integumentary system?
    Provides protection, regulates temperature, reduces water loss, and produces vitamin D precursors. Consists of skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands.
  9. What is the function of the skeletal system?
    Provides protection and support, allows body movements, produces blood cells, and stores minerals and fat. Consists of bones, associated cartilages, ligaments, and joints.
  10. What is the the function of the muscular system?
    Produces body movements, maintains posture, and produces body heat. Consists of muscles attached to the skeleton by tendons.
  11. What is the function of the nervous system?
    A major regulatory system that detects sensations and controls movements, physiologic processes, and intellectual functions. Consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors.
  12. What is the function of the endocrine system?
    A major regulatory system that influences metabolism, growth, reproduction, and many other functions. Consists of glands, such as the pituitary, that secrete hormones.
  13. What is the function of the cardiovascular system?
    Transports nutrients, waste products, gases, and hormones throughout the body; plays a role in the immune response and the regulation of body temperature. Consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.
  14. What is the function of the lymphatic system?
    Removes foreign substances from the blood and lymph, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid balance, and transports fats from the digestive tract. Consists of the lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, and other lymphatic organs.
  15. What is the function of the respiratory system?
    Exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood and the air and regulates blood pH. Consists of the lungs and respiratory passages.
  16. What is the function of the digestive system?
    Performs the mechanical and chemical processes of digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of wastes. Consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and accessory organs.
  17. What is the function of the urinary system?
    Removes waste products from the blood and regulates blood pH, ion balance, and water balance. Consists of the kidneys, urinary bladder, and ducts that carry urine.
  18. What is the function of the female reproductive system?
    Produces oocytes and is the site of fertilization and fetal development; produces milk for the newborn; produces hormones that influence sexual functions and behaviors. Consists of the ovaries, vagina, uterus, mammary glands, and associated structures.
  19. What is the function of the male reproductive system?
    Produces and transfers sperm cells to the female and produces hormones that influence sexual functions and behaviors. Consists of the testes, accessory structures, ducts, and penis.
  20. Describe 6 characteristics of life.
    • Organization is the condition in which that parts of an organism have specific relationships to each other and the parts interact to perform specific functions.
    • Metabolism is all of the chemical and physical changes taking place in an organism.
    • Responsiveness is the ability of an organism to sense changes in its external or internal environment and make the adjustments that help maintain its life.
    • Growth results as an increase in the size of all or part of an organism.
    • Development includes the changes an organism undergoes through time, beginning with fertilization and ending at death.
    • Reproduction is the the formation of new cells or new organisms.
  21. Why is it important to realize that humans share many, but not all, characteristics with other animals?
    Much of the knowledge about humans has come from studying other organisms. Because other organisms are also different from humans, the ultimate answers to questions about humans can be obtained only from humans.
  22. Define homeostasis, variable, set point, and normal range of values.
    • Homeostasis is the existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body
    • Variable values that can change
    • Set Point is an ideal normal value
    • Normal Range is slight variation (above or below) the set point
  23. If a deviation from homeostasis occurs, what mechanism restores it?
    Negative feedback
  24. What are 3 components of many negative-feedback mechanisms? How do they maintain homeostasis?
    • Receptor monitors the value of a variable. Control center receives information about he variable from receptor. Effector produces responses that change the value of a variable.
    • The receptor detects if there is a change from the normal range of values. The control center receives this information and the effector produces responses to bring it back to normal.
  25. Define positive feedback.
    when a value deviates from normal, the system's response makes the deviation even greater
  26. Why are positive feedback mechanisms often harmful? Give an example of a harmful and a beneficial positive feedback mechanism.
    • Positive feedback creates a cycle leading away from homeostasis and sometimes results in death
    • Harmful: inadequate delivery of blood to heart
    • Beneficial: childbirth
  27. What is the anatomical position in humans? Why is it important?
    • A person standing erect with the face directed forward, the upper limbs handing to the sides, and the palms of the hands facing forward.
    • The position of the body can affect the description of the body parts relative to each other.
  28. Define supine and prone.
    Supine is laying on your back. Prone is laying on your belly, face down.
  29. List two terms that in humans indicate toward the head. List two terms that mean the opposite.
    • Superior, cephalic
    • Inferior, caudal
  30. List two terms that indicate the back in humans. What two terms mean the front?
    • Posterior, dorsal
    • Anterior, ventral
  31. Define the following terms, and give the word that means the opposite.
    • Proximal means nearest; distal (distant)
    • Lateral means away from the mid-line; medial (toward the mid-line)
    • Superficial refers to the structure close to the surface of the body; deep (toward interior of body)
  32. What is the difference between the arm and the upper limb? Between the leg and the lower limb?
    • The upper limb includes the arm, forearm, wrist, and hand. The arm extends from the shoulder to the elbow.
    • The lower limb includes the thigh, leg, ankle, and foot. The leg extends from the knee to the ankle.
  33. Describe the quadrant and nine-region methods of subdividing the abdominal region. What is the purpose of these subdivisions.
    • Quadrants; one horizontal line and one vertical line, intersecting at the naval. Includes right-upper, left-upper, right-lower, left-lower.
    • Nine-region; two horizontal lines and two vertical lines. Includes epigastric, right and left hypochondriac, umbilical, right and left lumbar, hypogastric, and right and left iliac.
    • These regions makes it easier to identify pain and locations of organs.
  34. Describe the 3 planes of the body.
    Sagittal (runs vertically through body and separates into right and left); transverse (runs parallel to the surface of the ground and separates into superior and inferior); frontal (runs vertically from right to left and separates anterior and posterior)
  35. In what 3 ways can an organ be cut?
    Longitudinal section, cross section (transverse), and/or oblique section
  36. What structure separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity?
    Diaphragm
  37. What structure divides the thoracic cavity into right and left parts?
    Mediastinum
  38. Physiology
    A. can be used to study the human body without considering anatomy
    B. is concerned with organisms and does not deal with different levels of organization, such as cells and systems
    C. recognizes the static (as opposed to the dynamic) nature of living things
    D. is the scientific discipline that investigates the body's structures
    E. deals with the processes or functions of living things
    E. deals with the processes or functions of living things
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. The following are organizational levels for considering the body. (1) cell, (2) chemical, (3) organ, (4) organ system, (5) organism, (6) tissue. Choose the correct order for these organizational levels, from smallest to largest.
    2 1 6 3 4 5
  40. The endocrine system
    A. regulates other organ systems
    B. removes foreign substances from the blood; combats disease; maintains tissue fluid balance
    C. removes waste products from the blood; maintains water balance
    D. produces movement; maintains posture; produces body heat
    E. regulates temperature; reduces water loss; provides protection
    A. regulates other organ systems
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  41. The integumentary system
    A. regulates other organ systems
    B. removes foreign substances from the blood; combats disease; maintains tissue fluid balance
    C. removes waste products from the blood; maintains water balance
    D. produces movement; maintains posture; produces body heat
    E. regulates temperature; reduces water loss; provides protection
    E. regulates temperature; reduces water loss; provides protection
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. The lymphatic system
    A. regulates temperature; reduces water loss; provides protection
    B. regulates other organ systems
    C. produces movement; maintains posture; produces body heat
    D. removes foreign substances from the blood; combats disease; maintains tissue fluid balance
    E. removes waste products from the blood; maintains water balance
    D. removes foreign substances from the blood; combats disease; maintains tissue fluid balance
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  43. The muscular system
    A. produces movement; maintains posture; produces body heat
    B. regulates temperature; reduces water loss; provides protection
    C. removes foreign substances from the blood; combats disease; maintains tissue fluid balance
    D. regulates other organ systems
    E. removes waste products from the blood; maintains water balance
    A. produces movement; maintains posture; produces body heat
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. The nervous system
    A. regulates other organ systems
    B. removes waste products from the blood; maintains water balance
    C. regulates temperature; reduces water loss; provides protection
    D. removes foreign substances from the blood; combats disease; maintains tissue fluid balance
    E. produces movement; maintains posture; produces body heat
    A. regulates other organ systems
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  45. The urinary system
    A. removes waste products from the blood; maintains water balance
    B. regulates other organ systems
    C. produces movement; maintains posture; produces body heat
    D. regulates temperature; reduces water loss; provides protection
    E. removes foreign substances from the blood; combats disease; maintains tissue fluid balance
    A. removes waste products from the blood; maintains water balance
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  46. The characteristics of life that is defined as "all of the chemical and physical changes taking place in an organism" is
    A. development
    B. responsiveness
    C. organization
    D. growth
    E. metabolism
    E. metabolism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  47. Negative-feedback mechanisms
    a. make deviations from the set point smaller
    b. maintain homeostasis
    c. are associated with an increased sense of hunger the longer a person goes without eating
    d. all of the above
    d. all of the above
  48. The following events are part of a negative-feedback mechanism: (1) blood pressure increases, (2) the control center compares actual blood pressure to the blood pressure set point, (3) the heart beats faster, (4) receptors detect a decrease in blood pressure
    Choose the arrangement that lists the events in the order that they occur
    4 2 3 1
  49. Which of these statements concerning positive feedback is correct?
    A. birth is an example of a normally occurring positive feedback mechanism
    B. when cardiac muscle receives an inadequate supply of blood, positive feedback mechanisms increase blood flow to the heart
    C. positive feedback responses maintain homeostasis
    D. medical therapy seeks to overcome illness by aiding positive feedback mechanisms
    E. positive feedback responses occur continuously in healthy individuals
    A. birth is an example of a normally occurring positive feedback mechanism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  50. The clavicle (collarbone) is _______ to the nipple of the breast
    A. anterior
    B. ventral
    C. superior
    D. superficial
    E. distal
    E. distal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. The term that means nearer to the attached end of the limb is
    A. proximal
    B. lateral
    C. superficial
    D. distal
    E. medial
    A. proximal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. Which of these directional terms are paired most appropriately as opposites?
    A. medial and proximal
    B. anterior and inferior
    C. distal and lateral
    D. superior and posterior
    E. superficial and deep
    E. superficial and deep
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. The part of the upper limb between the elbow and the wrist is called the
    A. lower arm
    B. hand
    C. forearm
    D. inferior arm
    E. arm
    C. forearm
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. A patient with appendicitis usually has pain in the _________ quadrant of the abdomen
    A. R lower
    B. R upper
    C. L lower
    D. L upper
    A. R lower
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. A plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts is a
    A. transverse plane
    B. frontal (coronal) plane
    C. sagittal plane
    B. frontal (coronal) plane
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. The pelvic cavity contains the
    A. spleen
    B. stomach
    C. kidneys
    D. liver
    E. urinary bladder
    E. urinary bladder
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. The lungs are
    A. part of the mediastinum
    B. separated from each other by the diaphragm
    C. found within the thoracic cavity
    D. surrounded by mucous membranes
    E. surrounded by the pericardial cavity
    C. found within the thoracic cavity
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. Given the following characteristics: (1) reduce friction between organs, (2) line fluid-filled cavities, (3) line trunk cavities that open to the exterior of the body, which of the characteristics describe serous membranes?
    1 2
  59. Given the following organ and cavity combinations: (1) heart and pericardial cavity, (2) lungs and pleural cavity, (3) stomach and peritoneal cavity, (4) kidney and peritoneal cavity, which of the organs is correctly paired with a space that surrounds that organ?
    1 2 3
  60. Which of the following membrane combinations are found on the surface of the diaphragm?
    A. parietal pleura -- parietal peritoneum
    B. visceral pleura -- parietal peritoneum
    C. visceral pleura -- visceral peritoneum
    D. parietal pleura -- visceral peritoneum
    A. parietal pleura -- parietal peritoneum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. Mesenteries
    A. consist of two layers of peritoneum fused together
    B. are found primarily in body cavities that open to the outside
    C. are found in the pleural, pericardial, and abdominopelvic cavities
    D. anchor organs, such as the kidneys and urinary bladder, to the body wall
    e. all of the above
    A. consist of two layers of peritoneum fused together
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. Which of the following organs is not retroperitoneal?
    A. adrenal glands
    B. urinary bladder
    C. kidneys
    D. pancreas
    E. stomach
    E. stomach
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. The study of cells is called
    A. histology
    B. physiology
    C. cytology
    D. medical anatomy
    E. embryology
    C. cytology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. The study of tissues is called
    A. cytology
    B. microbiology
    C. gross anatomy
    D. histology
    E. organology
    D. histology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. The study of specific organ system function is called
    A. special physiology
    B. cell physiology
    C. system physiology
    D. histology
    E. physiological chemistry
    C. system phyiology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. The branch of physiology that studies functions modified by disease is called
    A. system physiology
    B. physiological chemistry
    C. pathology
    D. histophysiology
    E. special physiology
    C. pathology
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. Support, protection of soft tissues, mineral storage, and blood formation are functions of which system?
    A. skeletal
    B. nervous
    C. none of these
    D. integumentary
    E. muscular
    A. skeletal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. Locomotion, support of internal organs, and heat production are the function of which system?
    A. muscular
    B. respiratory
    C. cardiovascular
    D. lymphatic
    E. skeletal
    A. muscular
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. The internal transport of blood and dissolved substances is the function of which system?
    A. endocrine
    B. integumentary
    C. cardiovascular
    D. none of these
    E. nervous
    C. cardiovascular
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. The kidneys and urinary bladder are components of which system?
    A. endocrine
    B. digestive
    C. urinary
    D. lymphatic
    E. respiratory
    C. urinary
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. The pituitary and thyroid glands are components of which system?
    A. respiratory
    B. lymphatic
    C. digestive
    D. endocrine
    E. cardiovascular
    D. endocrine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. Defense against infection and disease is a function of which system?
    A. urinary
    B. cardiovascular and urinary
    C. respiratory
    D. lymphatic
    E. cardiovascular
    D. lymphatic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. Skin, hair, and nails are associated with which system?
    A. skeletal and muscular
    B. integumentary
    C. muscular
    D. endocrine
    E. skeletal
    B. integumentary
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. The maintenance of a relatively constant internal environment in an organism is termed
    A. none of these
    B. effector control
    C. positive feedback
    D. homeostasis
    E. negative feedback
    D. homeostasis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. When body temperature rises, a center is the brain initiates physiological changes to decrease the body's temperature. This regulation mechanism is an example of
    A. non-homeostatic regulation
    B. positive feedback
    C. negative feedback
    D. diagnostic regulation
    E. disease
    C. negative feedback
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. The increasingly forceful labor contractions that lead to childbirth are an example of this type of mechanism
    A. none of these
    B. effector shutdown
    C. positive feedback
    D. receptor activation
    E. negative feedback
    C. positive feedback
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  77. Which of the following tissues would be the most radio-dense?
    A. fat
    B. bone
    C. muscle
    D. nervous
    E. blood
    B. bone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  78. Cells are considered the smallest units of life because
    A. cells are composed or organelles, each of which is responsible for a particular "life-giving" function and cells are composed of molecules which, chemically, are the smallest units of structure are correct
    B. cells are composed of atoms which, chemically, are the smallest units of structure
    C. cells are composed of molecules which, chemically, are the smallest units of structure
    D. cells are composed of organelles, each of which is responsible for a particular "life-giving" function
    E. the cell is not considered the smallest unit of life
    D. cells are composed of organelles, each of which is responsible for a particular "life-giving" function
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  79. A chemical imbalance in a heart muscle cell can cause the heart to cease pumping blood, which in turn will cause other tissues and organs to cease functioning. This observation supports the view that
    A. all organisms are composed of cells
    B. congenital defects can be life threatening
    C. chemical molecules make up cells
    D. all levels of organization within an organism are interdependent
    E. all cells are independent of each other
    D. all levels of organization within an organism are interdependent
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. Each of the following is an example of negative feedback except one. Identify the exception
    A. a rise in estrogen during the menstrual cycle increases the number of progesterone receptors in the uterus
    B. a rise in blood calcium levels triggers the release of a hormone that lowers blood calcium levels
    C. a decrease in body temperature triggers a neuron response that initiates physiological changes to increase body temperature
    D. increased pressure in the aorta triggers mechanisms to lower blood pressure
    E. increased blood sugar stimulates the release of a hormone from the pancreas that stimulates the liver to store blood sugar
    A. a rise in estrogen during the menstrual cycle increases the number of progesterone receptors in the uterus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. In dealing with physiology, function is related to its
    A. form
    B. size
    C. cavity
    D. system
    E. location
    A. form
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. Isotopes of an element differ in the number of
    A. protons in the nucleus
    B. electron clouds
    C. neutrons in the nucleus
    D. energy levels they contain
    E. electrons in the nucleus
    C. neutrons in the nucleus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. The atomic number represents the number of
    A. protons in an atom
    B. neutrons in an atom
    C. electrons in an ion
    D. protons and neutrons
    E. neutrons and electrons
    A. protons in an atom
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  84. All atoms with the same atomic number are grouped into
    A. none of these
    B. elements
    C. compounds
    D. molecules
    E. cells
    B. elements
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  85. The atomic weight of an element indicates the average number of
    A. electrons in the outer shells
    B. protons and neutrons in the nucleus
    C. neutrons in the nucleus
    D. protons in the nucleus
    E. protons and electrons in an atom
    B. protons and neutrons in the nucleus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  86. The chemical behavior of an atom is determined by the
    A. number of neutrons
    B. size of the atom
    C. number of protons
    D. mass of the atom
    E. number and arrangement of electrons
    E. number of arrangements of electrons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. Ions with a positive charge are called
    A. anions
    B. none of these
    C. cations
    D. polyatomic ions
    E. radicals
    C. cations
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  88. Ionic bonds are formed when
    A. two or more atoms lose electrons at the same time
    B. cations and anions are held together by their opposite charges
    C. hydrogen forms bonds with negatively charged atoms in the same or different molecules
    D. atoms share electrons
    E. a pair of electrons is shared unequally by two atoms
    B. cations and anions are held together by their opposite charges
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. In a molecule of nitrogen, three pairs of electrons are shared by two nitrogen atoms. The type of bond that is formed would be an example of a
    A. polar covalent
    B. double covalent
    C. triple covalent
    D. hydrogen
    E. single covalent
    C. triple covalent
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  90. If a pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms, this type of bond occurs
    A. triple covalent
    B. hydrogen
    C. single covalent
    D. double covalent
    E. polar covalent
    E. polar covalent
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  91. Chemical reactions that require an input of energy exceeding that released, such as the addition of heat, are said to be
    A. none of these
    B. neutral
    C. exergonic
    D. activated
    E. endergonic
    E. endergonic
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  92. Which of the following substances would be least acidic?
    A. stomach secretions, pH 2
    B. urine, pH 6
    C. tomato juice, pH 4
    D. lemon juice, pH 5.5
    E. white wine, pH 3
    B. urine, pH 6
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  93. If a substance has a pH that is greater than 7, it is
    A. alkaline
    B. a buffer
    C. neutral
    D. a salt
    E. acidic
    A. alkaline
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  94. An important buffer in body fluids is
    A. HCl (hydrochloric acid)
    B. NaCl (sodium chloride)
    C. NaOH (sodium hydroxide)
    D. H2O (dihydrogen oxide)
    E. NaHCO2 (sodium bicarbonate)
    E. NaHCO2 (sodium bicarbonate)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  95. A polysaccharide that is formed in the liver and muscle to store glucose is
    A. glycogen
    B. cellulose
    C. fructose
    D. starch
    E. glucagon
    A. glycogen
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  96. The group of organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a near 1:2:1 ratio is defined as a
    A. lipid
    B. protein
    C. nucleic acid
    D. carbohydrate
    E. none of these
    D. carbohydrate
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  97. A fatty acid that contains three double covalent bonds in its carbon chain is said to be
    A. hydrogenated
    B. polyunsaturated
    C. monounsaturated
    D. saturated
    E. carboxylated
    B. polyunsaturated
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  98. The most common fat found in the human body is in the form of
    A. triglycerides
    B. phospholipids
    C. monoglycerides
    D. hormones
    E. steroids
    A. triglycerides
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  99. You would expect to find a peptide bond linking
    A. two simple sugars
    B. two nucleotides
    C. a fatty acid and a glycerol molecule
    D. one amino acid to an amino group of another
    E. a cholesterol molecule and a fatty acid molecule
    D. one amino acid to an amino group of another
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  100. When two monosaccharides undergo a dehydration synthesis
    A. a disaccharide is formed
    B. a new monosaccharide is formed
    C. a polysaccharide is formed
    D. a starch is formed
    E. hydrolysis occurs
    A. a disaccharide is formed
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  101. An unstable isotope that emits subatomic particles spontaneously is called
    A. a proton
    B. an atom
    C. a radioisotope
    D. a gamma ray
    E. an ion
    C. a radioisotope
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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