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(sometimes called reaction stoichiometry to distinguish it from composition stoichiometry) is the calculation of quantitive relationships of the reactants and products in a balance chemical reaction. It can be used to calculate quantities such as the amount of products that can be produced with the given reactants and percent yield.
A property- such as temperature, melting point, and density- that does not depend on the amount of the sample being examined.
A property of a substance that depends on the quantity of the sample.
Is a measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another.
How closely individual measurements agree with the correct, or "true," value.
- All digits of a measure quantity, including the uncertain one.
- Ex: 4.0 g has two significant figures. 4.00 g has 3 significant figures.
- The greater the number of significant figures, the greater is the certainty implied for the measurement.
- 1. Zeros between nonzero digits are always significant- 1005 kg (four significant figures); 1.03 (three significant figures)
- 2.Zeros at the beginning of a number are never significant- 0.02g (one significant figure); 0.0200g ( three significant figures)
- 3. Zeros at the end of a number are significant if the number contains a decimal point- 0.0200g (three significant figures); 3.0 cm (two significant figures)
- other examples: 1.03 x 10^4 g (three significant figures; 1.030 x 10^4 g (four significant figures)
- When carrying measured quantities through calculations, the least certain measurement limits the certainty of the calculated quantity and thereby determines the number of significant figures in the final answer.
- Carrying all units throughout the calculation to make sure we get the right unit in the end.
- Given unit x desired unit/ given unit = desired unit
- Streams of electrons that are produced when a high voltage is applied to electrodes in an evacuated tube.
- Experiments with this, help led the discovery of electrons.
Solutions in which water is the dissolving medium
A homogenous mixture of two or more substances.
A substance (such as NaCl) whose aqueous solutions contain ions.
A substance (such as C(12)H(22)O(11)- sucrose) that does not form ions in a solution.
The process where as an ionic compound dissolves, the ions become surrounded by H(2)O molecules.
are those solutes that exist in a solution completely or nearly complete as ions.
are those solutes that exist in solution mostly in the from of molecules with only a small fraction in the form of ions.
Reactions that result in the formation of an insoluble product
An insoluble solid formed by a reaction in a solution.