Nutrition 1020

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Author:
faulkner116
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197768
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Nutrition 1020
Updated:
2013-02-04 01:27:23
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Module2
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Description:
Food Package Labels 2.1
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  1. Legislation Overview
    • • 1990: Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990.
    • • 1994: >300,000 packaged foods relabeled. Mandatory compliance was required by food manufacturers.
    • • Package Size: Packages smaller than 12 square inches in surface area require a phone number.
    • • Serving Size: The FDA established set serving sizes for>100 food categories making product comparison easier.
    • • 2003: Legislation passed for trans fatty acids to appear on a separate line under SFAs in the nutrition facts panel starting January 1, 2006.
    • • 2004: The Food Allergen Labeling & Consumer Protection Act of 2004 passed. Manufacturers must plainly list milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts,peanuts, wheat, and soybeans ingredients starting January 1, 2006.
  2. Daily Reference Values
    • • Daily Reference Values (DRV).
    • • Are based on a 2000 Calorie diet.
    • • Are used exclusively on Food Package labels.
    • • Are applicable to adults and children4 years or older.
    • • See Appendix.
  3. DRV’s:
    Based on a 2000 Calorie Diet
    • • Fat (29% of Calories or 65 gm)
    • • Saturated Fat (9% of Calories or 20 gm)
    • • Cholesterol (300 mg)
    • • Carbohydrate (60% of Calories or 300 gm)
    • • Fiber (12.5 gm/1000 Calories or 25 gm)
    • • Protein (12% of Calories or 50 gm high quality Pro, 65 gm low quality Pro)
    • • Sodium (Na; 2400 mg)
    • • Potassium (K; 3500 mg)
  4. Classifying Foods by Fat Content
    • High-fat: >35% of Calories come from fat.

    • Moderately-fat: 25-35% of Calories come from fat.

    • Low-fat: <25% of Calories come from fat.
  5. Calculating % Fat by Calories
    Calories from Fat / total Calories X 100

    = Percent Calories from Fat
  6. Calculating % Fat by Weight
    Grams from Fat / total Grams in a serving X 100=

    Percent Fat by Weight
  7. Whole Milk Example
    • • 244 gm/cup
    • • 8 gm Fat X 9 Calories/gram = 72 Cals
    • • 9 gm Pro X 4 Calories/gram = 36 Cals
    • • 12 gm CHO X 4 Calories/gram = 48 Cals
    • – Amount of total Calories?
    • • 72+36+48 = 156 Calories
    • – Amount of fat based on weight?
    • • 8g ÷ 244g x 100 = 3.3%
    • – Amount of fat based on Calories?
    • • 72 cals ÷ 156 Cals x 100 = 46%
    • • Classification: whole milk is a high fat food.
  8. Energy Producing Nutrients looking deeper
    • • The nutrition facts panel provides total Calories,Fat Calories, grams carbohydrate, protein, and fat.
    • – Subcategories are given for fat and carbohydrate.
    • • Total fat is the sum grams of all the type of fatty acids found in the food. Manufacturers only show component gram amounts of SFA & TFA.
    • • Total carbohydrate is the sum grams of simple and complex carbohydrate. Manufacturers only show component gram amounts of sugars & fiber(which is non-caloric).
    • • % of Calories from simple sugar, SFA, protein etc can be determined as follows:– Grams x Calories/gm ÷ total Calories x 100 = % Calories
  9. Energy Producing Nutrients looking deeper examples
    • • Corn Taco shell example: Total Calories110, protein grams 2.
    • – % Calories from Protein: 2 x 4 Cal/gm ÷ 110x 100 = 7.3%
    • • Raspberry Jam example: Total Calories60, total CHO grams 11, Sugars grams 9.
    • – % Calories from Carbohydrate: 11 x 4 Cal/gm ÷ 60 x 100 = 73%
    • – % Calories from Sugars: 9 x 4 Cal/gm ÷ 60 x100 = 60%
  10. Reference Daily Intakes (RDI’s)
    • • Are set for vitamins & minerals essential in human nutrition.
    • • Use the highest RDA value from the 1968RDA table for men or women.
    • • Are expressed as percentages.
    • • Are mandatory on every food package label for Vitamin C, Vitamin A, Calcium and Iron.
    • • Other nutrients may appear on the label.
    • • See Appendix for values.
  11. Nutrient Density
    • Nutrient Dense Foods: A food is nutrient dense if it provides at least 20%of the RDI for a nutrient per serving.

    • Nutrient Density: The amount of nutrient in reference to the Calories or serving of food.
  12. Nutrient Density:Cereal Example

    What does 25%Vitamin C mean?

    How many mg of Vitamin C are in 1 serving of food?
    Nutrition label has Vitamin C at 25%
    The RDI for Vitamin C is 60 mg. (see appendix) 60 mg x 25% ÷ 100= 15 mg Vitamin C per serving.
  13. Ingredients List
    Listed in descending order by weight.

    INGREDIENTS: Whole oats, milled corn,enriched wheat flour, dextrose, maltose,high-fructose corn syrup, brown sugar,coconut oil, walnuts, salt, natural flavors, sodium ascorbate, vitamin Apalmitate, and iron.
  14. Terms:

    Free
    Negligible amounts of fat, cholesterol,sodium, sugar, or Calories. <0.5 grams of TFAs per serving.
  15. Terms:

    Reduced or Less
    25% less of a nutrient compared to the original product.
  16. Terms:

    Light or Lite
    1/3 fewer Calories; 1/2 the fat or sodium; color or texture (compared to the original product).
  17. Terms:

    Low
    • – Sodium (≤140 mg per serving)
    • – Cholesterol (≤20 mg per serving)
    • – Calorie (≤40 Calories per serving)
    • – Fat (≤3 g fat per 3.5 ounce serving)
  18. Terms:

    Lean
    ≤10 g fat; ≤4.5 g SFA & TFA; ≤95 mg cholesterol per 3.5 ounce serving
  19. Terms:

    Extra lean
    ≤5 g fat; ≤2 g SFA & TFA; ≤95mg cholesterol per 3.5 ounce serving.

    3.5 ounces = 100 grams
  20. Health Claims
    • A statement linking the nutrition profile of the food to a reduced risk of a particular disease.

    • To make a claim that a food supplies a good source of a nutrient, usually the food must provide at least 20% of the RDI or DRV.

    • Careful phrasing is required.

    • For example, if a product provides a good source of calcium [at least 20% of the RDI for calcium (200 mg)] per serving, then the health claim “this product may prevent osteoporosis” can be legally used.

    • The company must also mention that other factors like exercise may prevent osteoporosis.
  21. FDA Approved Health Claims

    1-6
    • 1. Calcium & Osteoporosis
    • 2. Low Fat & Cancer
    • 3. SFA and TFA, cholesterol, and heartdisease
    • 4. Fiber containing fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and cancer
    • 5. Fiber containing fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and heart disease
    • 6. Sodium and high blood pressure
  22. FDA Approved Health Claims

    7-10
    • 7. Fruits and vegetables (vitamin C and beta-carotene) and cancer
    • 8. Sugar alcohols and dental caries
    • 9. Folic Acid and Neural Tube Defects
    • 10. Soluble fiber from oats and barley and heart disease
  23. FDA Approved Health Claims

    11-14
    • 11. Soy and heart disease
    • 12. Potassium and blood pressure andstroke
    • 13. Plant sterol/stanol esters and heartdisease
    • 14. Fluoridated water and dental caries
  24. Knock it down Disease Wise

    Heart Disease:
    Low fat, SFA & TFA,cholesterol, a good source of fiber especially soluble fiber from oats and barley, soy, and plant sterols/stanols.
  25. Knock it down Disease Wise

    Blood Pressure & Stroke:
    Food must be low in sodium and a good source of potassium.
  26. Knock it down Disease Wise

    Cancer:
    Food must be low fat, and a good source of fiber, fruits and/or vegetables. Meat must be extra lean.
  27. Knock it down Disease Wise

    Osteoporosis:
    Food must be high in calcium.
  28. Knock it down Disease Wise

    Neural Tube Defects:
    Food must provide 40 μgper serving or more of folic acid.
  29. Knock it down Disease Wise

    Dental Caries/Tooth Decay:
    Food must be sugar free and may contain sugar alcohols.

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