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anatomy and physiology.
what is the body's second major control system?
the endocrine system.
what is the first major control system in the body?
the nervous system, because it is fast acting, using electro-chemical signals.
how does the endocrine system act?
slowly, using hormones.
what is a hormone?
a chemical messenger that travels via blood and acts at target organs.
what is a purely endocrine gland?
ductless- releases hormones directly into the blood or lymph (like the pituitary).
what is a mixed gland?
a gland that releases both endocrine and exocrine hormones.
how are exocrine glands released?
where are hormones sent to?
what are steroid hormones made of?
what are peptide/protein hormones made of?
amino acid derivatives.
what are the three functions of the endocrine system?
1) helps maintain homeostasis.
2) promotes growth and development.
3) produces hormones that travel in the blood and exert their effects on various target organs.
what are the ten organs of the endocrine system?
pituitary, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid, ovaries, adrenal (suprarenal), pineal, pancreas, testes and other, like the digestive tract or the kidneys.
where is the pituitary gland?
located under the concave sella turcica of the sphenoid bone.
how is the pituitary gland structured?
two lobes- an anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) and posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis).
what is the infundibulum?
the stalk that attaches pituitary gland to hypothalamus.
what is the hypophyseal portal system?
the capillary system that provides blood supply to the anterior pituitary.
what are the seven hormones of the anterior pituitary?
fsh, lh, acth, tsh, msh, prl and gh.
which anterior pituitary hormones are tropic hormones?
fsh, lh, acth and tsh.
what do tropic hormones do?
turn on another endocrine gland.
which anterior pituitary hormones are gonadotropins?
fsh and lh.
what is a gonadotropin?
a hormone that turns on hormones in a reproductive endo gland.
regulates gamete production and hormone activity of ovary and testes.
what is fsh?
follicle stimulating hormone.
what is lh?
what is acth?
what does adrenocorticotropic hormone do?
regulates adrenal cortex.
what is tsh?
thyroid stimulating hormone.
what is msh?
melanocyte stimulating hormone.
what does msh do?
melanin gives skin color.
what is prl?
what does prl do?
breast development and lactation in females.
what is gh?
what does growth hormone do?
metabolic hormone that affects muscle growth and long bones.
what is the posterior pituitary's function?
storage site for two hormones made by hypothalamus.
how do hormones travel to the posterior pituitary?
through the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract.
how do posterior pituitary hormones travel?
in nerve axons, like neurotransmitters.
what does adh (anti-diuretic hormone) do?
targets kidneys to reabsorb water, decreases urine output and conserves body water.
what does oxytocin do?
stimulates uterine contractions during labor and orgasm, milk release in lactating mother.
what is pituitary dwarfism?
hyposecretion of gh.
what is gigantism?
hypersecretion of gh in childhood.
what is acromegaly?
hypersecretion of gh in adulthood. (overgrowth of bones in hands, feet and face).
what is diabetes insipidus?
hyposecretion of adh (excessive urine output, excessive thirst, dehydration).
where is the thyroid gland located?
in the throat, inferior to larynx.
what does the thyroid gland look like?
two lobes joined by isthmus.
what two hormones are from the thyroid gland?
thyroid hormone includes tri-iodothyronine (or t3) and thyroxine (or t4).
what do the thyroid gland hormones do?
what does calcitonin do?
stimulates deposit of calcium salts into bones.
where are the parathyroid glands located?
in posterior surface of thyroid gland.
how many parathyroid glands are here?
two per lobe of thyroid- four parathyroid glands.
what is the parathyroid hormone?
transfers stored calcium to blood; antagonist to calcitonin.
where are the adrenal glands?
above each kidney.
what are the two regions of the adrenal glands?
the outer is the adrenal cortex and the inner is the adrenal medulla.
what controls the adrenal medulla?
sns (fight or flight).
what hormones does the adrenal medulla make?
epinephrine and norepinephrine.
what steroid hormone is made in the most superficial tissue of the adrenal cortex?
mineralcorticoids like aldosterone.
what do mineralcorticoids like aldosterone do?
regulates sodium ion reabsorption by kidneys.
where are the mineralcorticoids like aldosterone found?
what steroid hormone is made in the middle layer of the adrenal cortex?
glucocorticoids, like cortisol.
what do glucocorticoids, like cortisol, do?
stress hormone, releases glucose to blood.
where are the glucocortiocoids, like cortisol, found?
in zona fasciculata.
what steroid hormones are made in the most deep tissue of the adrenal cortex?
gonadocorticoids like androgens.
what do gonadocorticoids, like androgens, do?
where are gonadocorticoids, like androgens, found?
in the zona reticularis.
what are two glands of the pancreas gland?
: digestive enzymes.
: regulates blood sugar.
what hormones are made in the pancreas?
insulin and glucagon.
what does insulin do?
removes glucose from blood - metabolism or storage.
what does glucagon do?
targets liver to release glycogen (stored glucose) - blood.
what is the relationship between insulin and glucagon?
they are antagonists.
what cells of the pancreas are insulin and glucagon made in?
glucagon is made in alpha cells and insulin is made in beta cells.
what do the gonads produce?
sex cells, ova and sperm.
when are the gonads stimulated and how?
at puberty by gonadotropins fsh and lh.
what are the male gonads?
paired, oval testes suspended in scrotum outside body cavity.
what are the testes main steroid hormone?
what are the female gonads?
paired, almond-shaped ovaries.
what are the two main steroid hormones produced by the ovaries?
estrogen and progesterone.
what do the sex hormones do?
produce maturation of sex hormones.
what does estrogen produce?
breast development and monthly uterine cycle.
what does progesterone maintain?
uterine lining in pregnancy.
what do estrogen and progesterone do together?
regulate monthly cycle.
what does testosterone do?
produces secondary sex characteristics and libido.
where is the thymus?
in the superior thorax, posterior to sternum, anterior to heart and lungs.
what hormones does the thymus produce?
thymosin and thymopoietin.
what do the thymus hormones do?
direct immune system t-cells to distinguish self from non-self.
what is the pineal gland?
a pinecone-shaped gland in the roof of the third ventricle.
what is the pineal gland's hormone?
what does melatonin do?
synchronizes season rhythms in reproduction to photoperiod, triggers animal migration, implicated in timing of circadian rhythm sleep cycle, inhibits premature sexual maturation.
what is myxedema?
sluggishness from hyposecretion of thyroxine.
what is tetany?
prolonged muscle spasms from hyposecretion of pth.
what is hirsutism?
hypersecretion of gonadocorticoids.
what is diabetes mellitus?
hyposecretion of insulin.
what is hypoglycemia?
hypersecretio of insulin.
what is ptu?
a thioamide drug used to treat hyperthyroidism by effectively decreasing the thyroid's production of thyroid hormone.
what happens when the body receives excess thyroid hormones?
hyperthyroidism can occur if the levels of t3 and t4 are altered and increased.
what are symptoms of hyperthyroidism?
excessive sweating, weight loss and increased appetite.
what is the function of the reproductive system?
to perpetuate the species.
what are the organs of reproduction?
what produces the germ cells?
the male testes and female ovaries.
what products do the gonads produce?
exocrine (sperm or ova) and endocrine (hormones).
what is the route of sperm from maturation to ejaculation?
where are the seminiferous tubules located?
what occurs in the seminiferous tubules?
meiosis and production of spermatozoa.
what are the testes?
primary sex organ, located within the scrotum.
what is the scrotum?
sac of skin.
what is the urethra?
where semen travels.
what is the bulbourethral gland?
contributes a small amount of fluid to semen.
what is the corpus cavernosum?
tissue that fills with blood in the penis.
what is the corpus spongiosum?
tissue that is spongy and keeps urethra open during erection for ejaculation to be possible.
what is the glans penis?
the tip of the corpus spongiosum forms this structure, the head of the penis. (contains meatus)
what is the prepuce?
the foreskin- covers glans penis and is removed in circumcision.
where is the prostate gland?
encircles urethra inferior to the bladder.
what does the prostate gland do?
secretes milky fluid into urethra which helps activate the sperm.
what is hypertorphy of the prostate?
a common condition in older men that constricts the urethra and makes it difficult to urinate.
how many men would have prostate cancer if everyone live to 100?
what do the seminal vesicles do?
produce seminal fluid, liquid in which sperm leave the body. the seminal fluid is viscous fructose which nourishes the sperm.
where are the seminal vesicles?
the posterior wall of urinary bladder near terminus of vas deferens.
where is the bulbourethral glands?
a pea-shaped, inferior to prostate.
what do the bulbourethral glands do?
produce thick alkaline mucus into membranous urethra, to wash away residual urine at ejaculation. also buffers sperm against acidic female reproductive tract.
what is the vulva?
external female genitalia.
what is the vestibule?
central space of vulva; vagine and urethra open into this.
what is the mons pubis?
fatty area over pubic bone.
what is the labia major?
homologous to male scrotum.
what is the labia minora?
enclose the vestibule.
what is the clitoris?
sensitive erectile tissue homologous to penis.
what is the perineum?
diamond-shaped region between anterior end of labial folds, ischial tuberoisties and anus.
what do fimbriae do?
sweep egg into tube; they reach out from fallopian tube to help bring the egg released from the ovary into the fallopian tube.
thin projections at end of tube.
what is the vagina?
the birth canal during delivery.
what is the uterus?
what is the fundus?
base of the uterus.
what is the body?
larger, rounded portion of uterus.
what is the cervix?
narrow, inferior portion of uterus.
what is the external os?
part of cervix that goes into vagina.
what is the internal os?
part of cervix that opens into uterus.
what are the uterine or fallopian tubes?
tubes leading from the ovaries to the uterus.
what is the endometrium?
inner layer of uterine wall.
what is the functional layer of the endometrium?
stratum functionalis- sloughed off each 28 days: menstruation, menses.
what does the endometrium also have?
a basal layer.
what is the ovary?
place where ovum are stored.
what organs only have peritoneum (membrane) on anterior side?
retroperitoneal organs- all internal female organs except the ovaries.
what is the broad ligament?
encloses uterus and tubes, secures them to the lateral body wall.
what are the round ligaments?
encloses uterus to labia majora.
what is the uterosacral ligament?
uterus to sacrum.
what is the ovarian ligament?
uterus to ovary.
what are the suspensory ligaments?
ovaries to side of abdominal wall.
what is the mesovarium?
ovary to posterior body wall, a fold of the broad ligament.
what is the areola?
what is the nipple?
what composes the mammary gland?
what composes the lobes of the mammary gland?
what are the alveoli of the mammary glands?
secretory sacs at ends of lobule ducts.
what is the site of fertilization?
what does the corpus luteum secrete?
what are secreted from the pituitary in response to increasing estradiol levels?
lh and fsh.
what do the thecal cells in follicles produce?
androstenedone that is converted to estradiol.
what is the menstral cycle?
•day 1 is 1st day of menstrual period
•spike in lh causes ovulation
mid-cycle, ~ day13
•ovulation of follicle forms corpus
luteum “yellow body” in ovary which makes progesterone.
•increase in progesterone maintains
& increases thickness of uterine lining (luteal phase)
•when ovule is not fertilized,
corpus leuteum disintegrates, progresterone level falls, uterine blood vessels kink & menstration ensues ~ day 28.
what is menstrual synchrony?
when women have more similar menstrual cycles the more time they spend together.
what is the purpose of interphase?
growth and repair.
what occurs in interphase?
hereditary information carried in chromosomes is copied and cell grows. most of the cell's life is in this phase.
what is mitosis?
chromosomes divide as parent cell replicates into two identical daughter cells.
how most cells reproduce.
what happens in prophase?
nuclear envelope breaks down and nucleolus disappears.
chromatin condenses into visible chromosomes.
spindle fibers begin forming.
what happens in metaphase?
chromosomes lines up on equator.
spindle fibers attach to chromosomes.
what happens during anaphase?
cell elongates, sister chromatids split and are pulled to the opposite side of the cell.
what happens during telophase?
cell continues to elongate, nuclear envelope begins to reform, chromatin de-condenses in the center of each new cell and spindle fibers begin to disintegrate.
what happens in cytokinesis?
a pinch begins at a cleavage furrow and the cell splits into two daughter cells, each with 46 chromosomes.
where does meiosis occur?
only in gonads.
what is reductional division?
when one diploid cell undergoes meiosis, resulting in four haploid cells.
each daughter cell is unique.
what is a tetrad?
when homologous chromosomes pair up.
what is crossing over?
when sections of chromosomes are exchanged- resultant chromosomes are neither entirely maternal or paternal
: now contain genes from both parents.
this increases genetic variation.
what is prophase one?
homologous chromosomes line up to form tetrad (crossing over can occur) and move to poles.
what is metaphase one?
tetrads line up on equator/metaphase plate.
what is anaphase one?
homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles, sister chromatids remain together.
what is telophase and cytokinesis one?
two daughter cells are produced, each with half number of the chromosomes of the original parent; sister chromatids do not separate and genetic material does not replicate again.
what happens in prophase two?
same things as in prophase.
what happens in metaphase two?
chromosomes line up on equator/metaphase plate.
what happens in anaphase two?
sister chromatids pulled apart and move to opposite poles.
what happens in telophase and cytokinesis two?
four daughter cells form, each with half number of chromosomes of original parent.
what cells does mitosis occur in?
somatic (body) cells.
what is the purpose of mitosis?
constant growth and repair.
how many divisions are in mitosis?
one- when sister chromatids separate.
does crossing over occur in mitosis?
what will a diploid cell create in mitosis?
two diploid cells.
where does meiosis occur?
in testes and ovaries.
what is the purpose of meiosis?
how many divisions are there in meiosis?
homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids separating.
does crossing over occur with meiosis?
what does one diploid cell yield in meiosis?
for haploid cells, each one genetically different from reduction division.
where does spermatogenesis occur?
in seminiferous tubules, instigated by fsh.
what are spermatogonia?
cells from which sperm cells arise.
how do spermatogonia divide?
what do the daughter cells of spermatogonia become?
one becomes a primary speratocyte and one remains a speratogonium that can divide again by mitosis.
what are sertoli cells?
nurse cells that nuture the developing sperm cells through spermatogenesis- they also act as phagocytes, conuming the residual cytoplasm.
what do interstitial/leydig cells do?
what does the primary spermamtocyte do?
undergoes meiosis one to form secondary spermatocytes.
what do the secondary spermatocytes do?
undergo meiosis two to form spermatids.
what do the spermatids do?
differentiate to form sperm cells.
where are sertoli/nurse/sustentacular cells found?
support cells between seminiferous tubules.
where are interstitial/leydig cells found?
in between tubules, secrete androgens (testosterone).
what is the least mature form of sperm?
oogonia divide by:
what do the daughter cells of oogonia become?
one reamains an oogonium and one becomes a primary oocyte.
what does the primary oocyte do after mitosis?
begins prophase one.
primary oocytes are quiet when?
from birth until puberty.
after step one:
follicle with secondary oocyte enlarges, blood level estrogen rises.
what happens to the first polar body?
it splits into two other polar bodies: total, three polar bodies with hopefully one ovum.
what happens to the secondary oocyte?
it's arrested in metaphase two and only becomes an ovum if penetrated by sperm cell.
when does fsh stimulate development of oocytes in the ovaries?
beginning with puberty.
where do the immature ovum develop?
within a follicle, encased by follicle cells.
how often does a follicle with a primary oocyte reach the mature vesicular or graffian follicle stage?
every 28 days.
when do oogonia go through mitosis one to become primary oocytes?
how many oogonia do females have at birth?
a lifetime supply.
when does the primary oocyte finish meiosis one to form two haploid daughter cells?
right before ovulation.
what does the primary oocyte create with meiosis one?
a first polar body, that can divide again, and a secondary oocyte.
what does the secondary oocyte do after being created?
it completes metaphase two and then pauses.
what stimulates ovulation?
a burst of lh.
what does ovulation do?
causes the follicle to rupture and release the secondary oocyte.
where does the secondary oocyte go?
down the fallopian tube towards the uterus.
what happens to the secondary oocyte if fertilized?
it immediately completes meiosis two to form one ovum and a second polar body.
what do the ovum and sperm create at fertilization?
a diploid zygote.
what happens to the secondary oocyte if it is not fertilized?
it's lost in menstruation.
what does lh do to the ruptured follicle?
turns it into the corpus luteum.
what does the corpus luteum produce?
progesterone and estrogen.
what happens to the corpus luteum if pregnancy doesn't occur?
it persists for about 12 days before degenerating into scar tissue known as the corpus albicans.
what does low progesterone cause?
the sloughing of the uterine lining: menstral phase.
what are factors involved with the decision to use a particular form of birth control?
convenience, availability, risks and benefits, effectiveness, cost, and moral and ethical issues.
what is a contraceptive?
prevents the joining of egg and sperm.
how do hormonal contraceptives prevent fertilization?
prevent formation or maturation of gametes.
how do physical contraceptives prevent fertilization?
blocking or preventing sperm and egg meeting.
what is a vasectomy?
cutting and tying the man's vas deferens so that sperm cannot pass to the penis.
what is castration?
removing the testicles, so that hormone supplements would be necessary.
what are birth control pills?
what are condoms?
are iuds contragestive?
most types of iuds prevent sperm movement and change the lining of the uterus, but they do not prevent fertilized eggs from implanting.
what is contragestion?
prevents implantation of fertilized egg in the uterus or block development of the embryo. (morning after pill).
what is plasma?
the fluid matrix of blood.
what does plasma contain?
water, salts and proteins.
what are the formed elements of plasma?
rbc- erythrocytes, wbc- leukocytes and platelets- thrombocytes.
what is 91% of plasma?
what are the plasma proteins?
albumins, immuno-proteins and fibrinogens.
what is the connective tissue of blood?
non living fluid matrix with living cells suspended in it.
what do rbc's do?
what do wbc's do?
what do platelets do?
what does plasma do?
heat absorption, osmotic balance, ph buffering and transport of substances.
what does plasma transport?
nutrients, metabolic waste, hormones, oxygen and carbon dioxide.
what does the water in plasma do?
solvent, absorbs heat.
what do the salts in plasma do?
osmotic balances, ph buffering, regulating membrane permeability.
what do the plasma proteins do?
osmotic balance, ph buffering, clotting, lipid transport and antibodies.
what does hematocrit measure?
percentage of rbc's in a given volume.
what does hemoglobin measure?
oxygen-carrying capacity per 100mL.
what could a low rbc count mean?
anemia, nutritional deficiencies, and overyhydration.
what could a high rbc count mean?
polycythemia and dehydration.
what could a low hematocrit mean?
anemia, leukemia and hemorrhage or active bleeding.
what could a high hematocrit mean?
shock, dehydration and polycythemia.
what could a low hemoglobin mean?
kidney disease, enlarged spleen (liver disease, tb, lupus).
what could a high hemoglobin mean?
polycythemia, chronic hypoxia (congestive heart failure), high altitudes.
what does a basophil look like?
purple granules, lobed nucleus.
what does a basophil do?
inflammation and anticoagulant (brings more wbc's to site).
what does a neutrophil look like?
multilobed with granules.
what does a neutrophil do?
what does an eosinophil look like?
bilobed, with red granules.
what does an eosinophil do?
destroy parasitic worms and allergens.
what does a lymphocyte look like?
large, round nucleus.
what does a lymphocyte do?
what does a monocyte look like?
large, with a u-shaped nucleus.
what does a monocyte do?
what does a low wbc count mean?
anemia, or chemotherapy.
what does a high wbc count mean?
infections, trauma and cancer.
wbc that end with "cyte" don't have:
wbc that end with "phils" have:
how do you remember the relative abundance of wbc types?
never let monkeys eat bananas.
what are antigens?
glycoprotein identifiers on rbc plasma cell membrane.
what are antibodies?
free floating plasma proteins (a and b) that recognize and agglutinate, or clump, foregin (non-self) antigens in blood plasma.
what is agglutination?
clumping together of cells in the presence of a specific antibody.
what is the rhesus factor?
antigen present in 85% of caucasian population; important during pregancy because a rh- mother carrying an rh+ child will form rh+ antibodies that will attack the rbc of subsequent rh+ fetuses.
if the blood agglutinates in the presence of an antibody, what is present?
the matching antigen.
how do veins move blood?
toward the heart.
how do arteries move blood?
away from the heart.
what is the purpose of valves?
prevent backflow of blood.
what are the atrioventricular valves?
the tricuspid on the right and the mitral (or bicuspid) on the left.
what are the semilunar valves?
the aortic semilunar valve is on the left (blood flows to the aorta) and the pulmonary semilunar valve is on the right (blood flows to lungs).
pathway of DEoxygenated blood?
vena cava- right atrium- tricuspid valve- right ventricle- semilunar valve- pulmonary artery.
pathway of oxygenated blood?
lungs- pulmonary vein- left atrium- mitral valve- left ventricle- semilunar valve- aorta- body.
what are the three stages of circulation?
cardiac (within the heart), pulmonary (to and from lungs) and systemic (to and from the body).
what does the right heart do?
receives blood from the body and pumps it through the pulmonary artery to the lungs where it gets oxygenated.
what does the left heart do?
receives oxygen-full blood from the lungs an pumps it through the aorta to the body.