Anthro7:Week4

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Author:
dante01
ID:
197783
Filename:
Anthro7:Week4
Updated:
2013-02-04 03:32:34
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Midterm
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study
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  1. Mutualism
  2. Altruism
  3. Why is the evolution of cooperation puzzling?
  4. Inclusive fitness
    -helping relatives can be a good way to pass on your genes, because they've got your genes
  5. Reciprocal altruism
    • a social interaction phenomenon where an individual makes sacrifices for another individual in expectation of similar treatment.
    • Ex. Grooming in Primates
  6. Hamilton's Rule
    • br>c
    • benefits to recipient x relatedness> cost to actor
  7. How do primates recognize kin?
    • -Rely partly on familiarity
    • 1. Location
    • 2. Traits f individual 
    • 3. Mother-infant associations
    • 4. Rules of thumb
    • -all infants born under alpha male tenure are his
  8. 3 fundamental life history trade-offs
    • 1. Trade-off between current reproduction and future reproduction
    • 2. Trade-off between offspring quality and offspring quantity 
    • 3. Trade-off between mating effort and parenting effort
  9. Why are large brains beneficial?
    • 1. Learning
    • 2. Problem Solving 
    • -processing inaccessible foods
    • -manipulating rivals
    • 3. Memory 
    • -locating and remembering food sources
    • 4. Social intelligence
    • 5. Flexibility 
  10. Social intelligence theory
    Social challenges may favor large brains
  11. Ecological intelligence theory
    • -Exploiting short-lived, patchy food resources may have favored special cognitive skills in primates
    • -Fruit diet demands: knowledge of fruit properties, locations, good memory overall
  12. Extractive foraging
    • -act of locating and/or processing embedded foods
    • Ex. Chimps use rocks to bash open hard-shelled nuts
  13. Cognitive maps
    Mental representation of location, availability, and quality of things in environment
  14. Third-party knowledge
    other females recognize the connection between the infant and the mother
  15. Theory of mind
    • Ability to understand other's thoughts
    • -use to predict behavior 
  16. Requirements of reciprocal altruism
    • 1. Frequent opportunities to interact (proximity)
    • 2. Keep track of help given and received(memory)
    • 3. Must only help if receive help
  17. Examples of Cooperation in nature
    • 1. Alarm calls
    • 2. Cooperative hunting 
    • 3. Territorial defense
    • 4. Food-sharing
    • 5. Communal care of young
  18. Altruism 
    • -unselfish regard for or devotion to the welfare of others
    • Ex. Alarm call 

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