Invertebrate/ Vertebrate Digestion Layers of tract

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Invertebrate/ Vertebrate Digestion Layers of tract
2013-02-04 09:14:22
BIO 220

Nutrition/ Digestion
Show Answers:

  1. Invertebrate Digestion:
    FIrst true extracellular digestion occurs in ___
  2. More advanced invertebrates have other less advanced digestive tracts. 
    True or False
    • False:
    • more advanced
  3. Classes of vertebrates
    • fish (pisces)
    • amph.
    • rept.
    • birds
    • mammals
  4. Characteristics of advanced digestion
    • a.      One way flow
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Two openings
    • 1.      In one end; out the other
    • b.      Digestion coupled with absorption
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Digestive products get absorbed into the body
    • 1.      It has to be absorbed through the tract to go to the rest of the body
    • a.      If it remains inside the canal, the body doesn’t get it
  5. Wall of digestive tract layers from inside to outside
    • tunica...
    • - mucosa
    • - submucosa
    • - muscularis
    • - adventitia (or serosa in some areas)
  6. Explain the tunica mucosa:
    type of membrane
    lines what
    what tissue
    • 1.      mucous membrane
    • a.      lines cavities that open to the exterior
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      epithelial tissue lines the lumen
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      In humans, its simple columnar epithelim
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                           iii.      Goblet cells produce the mucus
  7. tunica mucosa function
    • 1.      Glandular layer
    • a.      Produces and secretes the digestive juices
    • 2.      Since it’s a mucous membrane, its protective in nature
    • a.      Protects it from being digested itself
  8. tunica submucosa
    general description
                                                                                                                                          i.      A connective tissue layer that contains BV, lymphatic vessels, and nerves
  9. tunica submucosa
    function of vessels
    • 1.      Vessels are there to get the absorbed materials and transport them
    • a.      Pick up the nutrients that were absorbed through the wall of the tract and transport them to the body
  10. tunica submucosa
    Nerve function
    • 1.      Nerves are part of the autonomic nervous system
    • a.      Two divisions
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Parasympathetic
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      – rest and relaxation; increases digestion
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                           iii.      Sympathetic
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                           iv.      – inhibits digestion; “fight/ flight”
    • b.      Control smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Nerves are going to control movement of tube and release of digestive juices 
  11. tunica muscularis
    types of muscle
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Most part: it is smooth muscle
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      At beginning and end of tube, its skeletal muscle, but most of it is smooth muscle
    • 1.      Even that skeletal muscle is barely under control
  12. tunica muscularis
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Function: movement
    • 1.      Peristalsis
    • a.      Rhythmic movement of food from one part of the tube to the next
    • 2.      In stomach, there is another type of movement called churning
    • a.      Where the food is thrown from side-to-side, top to bottom in the stomach because you want to change the bolus (solid mass that you swallow) into a more liquid fluid, chyme
  13. tunica adventitia
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Connective tissue layer
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Located all places except the abdominal pelvic level, where its called the tunica serosa, which is the peritoneum, which is also connective tissue
  14. tunica adventitia
    Compare two types
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      In both adventitia and serosa, it’s a binding tissue
    • 1.      Binds organs to wall of body
    • 2.      Binds blood vessels and nerves to wall of the tube
  15. tunica adventitia
    Contrast two
    • 1.      Adventitia: just connective tissue
    • a.      Esophagus, mouth, pharynx
    • 2.      Abdominal pelvic region: it’s a serous membrane
  16. tunica serosa
    • a.      Tunica serosa called the peritoneum
    • b.      Not only connective tissue, but epithelium
    • c.       Every serous membrane has two layers
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Outer, called parietal layer called parietal peritoneum
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      Inner, called visceral layer called visceral peritoneum
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                           iii.      In between is a space where serous fluid exists, which is watery
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                           iv.      Simple squamous called mesothelium in the wall of a serous membrane
  17. tunica serosa function
    • a.      Serosa’s function is to reduce friction as the organs move in the cavity
    •                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Present in abdominal pelvic region for digestion: small intestine, large intestine, stomach