Parts of the Tube

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  1. Mouth 
    • 1.      begin mechanical digestion
    • 2.      In higher vertebrates, it begins digestion of carbohydrates (some amphibian and rest of vertebrates
    • a.       does not complete it; just begins it
  2. Salivary Glands
    • 1.      Little
    • or no oral glands

    • 2.      aquatic
    • amphibian do not have oral glands; all of terrestrial do

    • 3.      all
    • mammals do

    • 4.      fish
    • don’t have glands
  3. Teeth
    1.      all vertebrates except birds have teeth, which are edentate (without teeth)
  4. Teeth of Vertebrates
    Types in vertebrates (fish, amphibians, reptiles)
    Types in humans
    Types in Birds
    •  a.       homodont and pleurodont (fish, amphibians and reptiles)
    • b.      Humans are heterodont and most are diphyodont
    • c.       Birds don’t have teeth
  5. Explain Homodont and Pleurodont
    • a.       Homodont
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Means one shape (all of the teeth in a particular vertebrates mouth only have one shape [can be sharp, flat, etc. but they all have to be the same
    • b.      Pleurodont
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Many sets of teeth
  6. Explain heterodont and diphyodont
    • a.       Humans are heterodont and most are diphyodont
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Hetero: variety of shapes in same mouth
    • Di= two sets: temporary and permanent
  7. Pharynx
    short, muscular tube that is used both for digestion and respiration
  8. Pharynx function
    • 1.      Function in all vertebrates is transport of the bolus and transport of air
    • a.       No digestion takes place in the pharynx
    • 2.      Some exceptions:
    • a.       Some amphibians have digestive glands, which secrete digestive juices, don’t digest
  9. Stomach 
    • 1.      In vertebrate:
    • a.       Can be J-shaped or straight
  10. Stomach Funciton in all
    • a.       To begin digestion of proteins
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Not to complete it, just to begin it
    • b.      Churning
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Convert bolus to chyme
  11. Stomach Lining
    • 1.      Lining of stomach, the mucosa, is thrown into irregular folds
    • a.       When stomach is empty, the stomach is all folded up
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Irregular folds, called rugae
    • 1.      Purpose is to decrease size of stomach so that it does not have to be too large
    • a.       When food in it, folds open up and it distends 
  12. Stomach end
    • 1.      At end of stomach is the pyloric sphincter
    • a.       End of stomach where the small intestine starts
    • b.      Sphincter is circular, smooth muscle
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Controls the passage of food
    • 1.      Close when we want to slow down food
    • 2.      Open when we want food to pass
    • c.       This one is movement of chyme from stomach to small intestines
  13. Small Intestine
    • 1.      Two parts in all but mammals:
    • a.       Duodenum
    • b.      Ileum
    • 2.      Mammals have three parts (in order)
    • a.       Duodenum
    • b.      Jejunum
    • c.       Ilium
  14. Small Intestine
    • plicae
    • villi
    • (in man, microvilli)
  15. Plicae
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Circular arrangements of mucosa, or pleated arrangement of mucosa in wall of small intestine
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Unlike rugae, which is irregular, the mucosa is pleated
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      It can stretch out when food is in it
    •                                                                                                                                   iv.      Increase SA of the lumen
    • 1.      Distension; increase SA when food in it 
  16. Villi
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Simple columnar epithelium (in humans) is thrown into clown collar; undulating layer
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Fingerlike projections
  17. Microvilli
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      At the luminal border, there is an increased surface area on the villi
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      Each cell of mucosa, at least in man, has the microvilli
  18. Large Intestine
    • 1.      Some absorption of material (limited)
    • a.       Most is water
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Very important amount of water absorbed by our colon
    • b.      Vitamins
    • c.       Drugs
    • 1.      Formation of waste product: feces
  19. Large Intestine (colon)
    • 1.      Structure depends on vertebrate
    • a.       Usually one large intestine
    • b.      When we get down (in mammals)
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Cecum (blind pouch)
    • 1.      Coming off it is a very small gland called the appendix
  20. What does the large intestine consists of?
    blind pouch (cecum) with appendix coming off of it
  21. Prole of apendix and cecum
    • 1.      Appendix plays no role iin man, but in early vertebrate form it does
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      In some vertebrates, ceca have a digestive role, but in man, they don’t
    •                                                                                                                                   iii.      Usually associated with large intestines
    • 1.      Some animals have a lot, but man only has one
  22. Size of LI
    short but large in diameter
  23. End of the large intestine
    • 1.      cloaca/ anus
    • a.       Means sewer
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Cloaca used for opening of digestive, excretory, and reproduction
    • 1.      Liquid waste, solid waste, and gametes
    • b.      Anus:
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Just for solid waste= digestive
Card Set:
Parts of the Tube
2013-02-07 03:10:49
BIO 220

Nutrition/ Digestion
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