Anat and phys test 1

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Anat and phys test 1
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2013-02-04 14:07:57
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Unit 1 systems
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  1. What are the levels of organization?
    1. Cells

    2. Tissues

    3. Organs

    4. Systems

    5. Organism
  2. What are the 11 body systems
    Cardiovascular (Cathy)

    •                                 
    • Digestive (Designed)

    •                                 
    • Endocrine (Every)

    •                                 
    • Integumentary (Intelligent)

    •                                 
    • Lymphatic (Luke)

    •                                 
    • Muscular (Maybe)

    •                                 
    • Nervous (now)

    •                                 
    • Reproductive (Ross)

    Respiratory (Really)

    Skeletal (Stalks)

    Urinary (Unicorns)
  3. Define Homeostasis
    A state of dynamic equilibrium in which the internal environment of the body remains relatively constant
  4. What is Anatomy?
    Anatomy is the structure of the body, location, appearance in relation to other body parts
  5. what is Physiology
    Physiology is the study of the body’s function or how it works
  6. What is anatomy and physiology in relation to eachother
    structure vs function
  7. what are the 5 basic functions 
    • movement
    • excretion
    • communication
    • transportation
    • reproduction
  8. What is the function of the Nervous system
    communication
  9. how does the nervous system communicate
    through an electrical Impulse or nerve impulse that works fast to maintain short term homeostasis
  10. How does the nervous system maintain homeostasis
    • Receives, interprets and responds to sensations in order to maintain homeostasis. 
    • Monitors and controls body activities
  11. What organs are in the nervous system
    • the brain
    • spinal cord
    • special
    • sense organs (Nose, ear,eyes, tongue,etc..)
    • Nerves
  12. what is the process of the nervous system
    • Sense
    • Decide                 
    • Response
  13. What does PNS stand for? what does it do?
    Peripheral Nervous System is the nervous link. parts of your PNS are controlled by the brain automatically. This is the autonomic nervous system. It manages some things your body does 'without thinking' such as reactions
  14. what does CNS stand for? what does it do?
    • Central Nervous System
    • Combines pieces of Information and makes decisions
  15. what specialist deals with the nervous system
     a Neurologist
  16. what happens if the nervous system fails
    If something happens to the organs within the system there can be no communication between the brain and the body. So essentially the victim will become a vegetable and have no control over their body.  Ex. Paraplegia- Complete paralysis of the lower half of the body including both legs, usually caused by damage to the spinal cord.
  17.  

    what system is this?
    the nervous system
  18. What are the differences between the nervous and endocrine system
    Nervous System:Fast Impulse,Short term Homeostasis,Electromagnetic Impulse


    Endocrine System:Slower Chemical Messenger,Long term Homeostasis, Hormones
  19. What is the basic function of the endocrine system?
    Communication
  20. How does the Endocrine system communicate
    Ductless Glands that secrete hormones.Communicates through hormones (Chemical Messengers) that are secreted and travel into the blood stream towards the target organ. Hormones work slower than an impulse to maintain long term Homeostasis.
  21. what are the organs in the endocrine system
    • Pituitary Glands
    • Gonads
    • Thymus
    • Pancreas
    • parathyroid glands
    • Pineal glands
  22. what is the specialist that deals with the endocrine system
    An Endocrinologist
  23. what happens if the endocrine system fails
    If the Endocrine system is damaged or does not work properly the body might not grow or mature properly. All body functions would be deranged and death would occur. Too much or too little of any hormone can be harmful to your body. For example, if the pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone, a teen may grow excessively tall. If it produces too little, a teen may be unusually short.
  24. What system is this?
    endocrine system
  25. what is the function of the reproductive system?
    Procreation (Survival of species does not play a role in homeostasis)
  26. what organs are in the reproductive system
    Male: Testes, Epididymides, Scrotum, Ductus deferentes, Urethra, Penis, Accessory glands

    Female: Ovaries, Uterine tubes, Uterus, Vagina, Vulva
  27. what specialists deal with the reproductive system
    • Female:Gynecologist, Obstetrician 
    • Male:Urologist, Fertility specialist
  28. what would happen if the reproductive system is damaged?
    If there is damage to the reproductive system the victim will most likely never be able to reproduce.
  29. What are the functions of the cardiovascular system
    • transportation
    • exchange
    • filtration
    • reabsorption
  30. How does the cardiovascular transport
    Moves blood to all body systems so that every cell can obtain oxygen and nutrients needed to carry on metabolic activities. Wastes produced are then moved to organs for processing before their accumulation causes damage.
  31. How does the cardiovascular system exchange
    Capillaries provide a “Drop off” and “Pick up” service to cells. Is the dropping off of gases and nutrients, and the picking up of wastes, occurring between the blood plasma and ISF.
  32. what are the organs in the cardiovascular system
    • Heart
    • Blood vessels
  33. what are the three subcategories of blood vessels
    • artery
    • vein
    • capillaries 
  34. What do the arteries do
    carry oxygenated blood away from the heart
  35. what do the veins do
    carry deoxygenated blood towards the heart
  36. what is the purpose of the capillaries
    they serve as a site of exchange, they provide a “Drop off” and “Pick up” service to cells. Is the dropping off of gases and nutrients, and the picking up of wastes, occurring between the blood plasma and ISF.
  37. what specialist deals withe the cardiovascular system
    a cardiologist 
  38. what happens if the cardiovascular system fails
    If the cardiovascular system fails the blood will not be pumped to muscles. Blood contains oxygen and glucose, which the cells need to convert to energy and to survive, and if the cells do not get blood, they will die, and the person whose system has failed will die. This is why the circulatory system is vital for life.
  39. What are the functions of the lymphatic system
    • Protection
    • transportation
  40. how does the lymphatic system protect
    Defends the body from the harmful effects of microorganisms, toxins, and dead or diseased body cells.

                    
  41. How does the lymphatic system transport
    Transports/returns fluid into the bloodstream to help maintain fluid balance 
  42. What organs deal with the lymphatic system
    • Lymphatic vessels                                               
    • Lymphatic nodes 
    • spleen
    • Thymus
    • Tonsils
  43. What specialist deals with the lymphatic system
    a hematologist
  44. what would happen if the lymphatic system failed
    The lymphatic system is the body's sewer system. Waste products and infectious material will end up in this circulatory system which eventually empties back into the blood system and to the entire body. Infections would not be fought off and life could not be sustained.
  45. what are the fluids in the lymphatic system
    • Lymph
    • Plasma
    • ISF (Interstitial pace)
    • CSF (Cerebrospinal)
  46. where is lymph fluid located
    in the lymphatic vessels
  47. where is plasma fluid located
    in the blood vessels
  48. where is ISF fluid located
    in tissue cells
  49. where is CSF fluid located
    in the central nervous system (around brain and spinal chord)
  50. what system is this?

    the lymphatic system
  51. what are the functions of the skeletal system
    • support
    • protection
    • movement
    • production
    • storge
  52. how does the skeletal system support
    strong, rigid nature enables it to serve as structural frame that supports the other body structure
  53. how does the skeletal system protect 
    bones physically surround internal organs and their hard quality provides a shield against damage.
  54. how does the skeletal system create movement
    attachment sites for skeletal muscles enabling a coordinated movement. Rigid nature allows them to serve as levers for skeletal muscles to pull on during contraction
  55. how does the skeletal system produce
    Red marrow within spongy bone manufactures blood cells/formed elements from stem cells.
  56. how does the skeletal system storage
    reservoir for two main minerals(Calcium and Phosphate) These minerals (Electrolytes) are needed for many reasons
  57. what organs are in the skeletal system
    bones
  58. what specialist deals with the skeletal system
    orthopedic
  59. what would happen if the skeletal system fails
    If the skeletal system fails you would die a few seconds later, after your body crushes its own vital organs- and by that time, your body would look like a deflated balloon with hair attached to it.
  60. what are the functions of the muscular system
    • movement
    • support
    • producation
  61. how does the muscular system provide movement
    Each motion relies on the integrated function, bones, joints, nerves and skeletal muscles. Contraction occurs shortens muscle cells to pull on bones causing movement
  62. how does the muscular system support 
    rigid connection between skeletal muscles and bones help hold body in upright position and strengthens skeletal frame.
  63. how does the muscular system produce
    heat is a by-product of movement.Helps maintains normal body temperature.
  64. describe the three types of muscle tissue
    • Smooth- Found in hollow organs 
    • Skeletal- Muscle that is firmly attached to bone
    • Cardiac- Within myocardium of heart
  65. what specialist deals with the muscular system
    a physical therapist
  66. what organs are in the muscular system
    muscles 
  67. what would happen if the muscular system failed
    If the muscular system fails you cannot move. Muscular dystrophy is a name for certain types of diseases.The disorders weaken skeletal muscles. Therefore, muscular dystrophies seriously affect movement, posture, and breathing. Skeletal deformities are often associated with this group of diseases. 
  68. what are the functions of the respiratory system
    • excretion
    • regulation
    • exchange
  69. how does the respiratory system exchange
    Exchange of gases between the environment and blood stream
  70. how does the respiratory system excrete
    Removes metabolic waste such as carbon dioxide and water vapor
  71. how does the respiratory system regulate
    Maintains body temperature by increasing or decreasing the amount of war air released. Maintain Ph. of body fluids by removing carbon dioxide made during cell respiration
  72. what organs are in the respiratory system
    • Nose/mouth
    • Pharynx
    • Larynx
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Lungs
  73. what specialists deal with the respiratory system
    • Pulmonologists
    • RespiratoryTherapist
  74. what is the structural organization of the respiratory system
    • Nose/Mouth
    • Pharynx
    • larynx
    • Trachea
    • Bronchi
    • Alveoli of lungs
    • diaphragm
  75. what would happen if the respiratory system failed
    without oxygen the body will cease to survive, as there is a no oxygen entering the body, the heart rate increases (tries to beat quicker in a bid to get more oxygen) and eventually life will be over as the brain cannot survive for more than a few minutes (dependent on individual) without oxygen.
  76. what are the functions of the integumentary system
    • regulation
    • production
    • excretion
    • protection
    • communication
  77. how does the integumentary system regulate
    Maintains body temperature by causing blood vessels near skin to vasodilate or vasoconstrict. Maintains body temperature by increasing or decreasing the amount of water released during the sweating mechanism
  78. how does the integumentary system produce
    Vitamin D is produced by the skin when exposed to UV light. Vitamin D helps absorption of calcium from food. Calcium is needed for bone growth/ repair, muscle contraction, impulses
  79. how does the integumentary system communicate
    sensory receptors located within the skin react to stimuli and relay this information to the CNS
  80. how does the integumentary system protect
    physical barrier formed by skin protects against: loss of body fluids, physical injury, ultraviolet light,invasion of microorganisms
  81. How does the integumentary system excrete 
    sweat glands release small amounts of metabolic waste through tiny pores to the outside of the body
  82. what are the organs in the integumentary system
    • Skin
    • Accessory Organs
    • Sebaceous Glands
  83. what specialist deals with the integumentary system
    a dermatologist 
  84. what would happen if the integumentary system failed
    Sweat is a part of homeostasis and when this layer doesn't exist you cannot excrete sweat. Therefore, you could not use this as a way to cool off. Without the skin, hair, and nails then viruses and bacteria could just get into your body easily! If there was no integumentary system or it failed rocks, and other unwanted objects could get into your body.
  85. what is the structural organization of the integumentary system 
    • Nails
    • epidermis
    • (Hair, sweat glands, sebaceous glands)
    • dermis
    • hypodermis

                                                    
  86. what are the functions of the urinary system
    • Excretion
    • Regulation
    • Storage
    • Reabsorption
    • Filtration
  87. how does the urinary system excrete
    Removes metabolic wastes such as: nitrogen waste, water electrolytes and toxins
  88. how does the urinary system regulate
    Maintains proper levels of blood composition, water electrolytes, PH and maintains blood pressure
  89. how does the urinary system storage
    temporarily holds urine until the "right time”
  90. how does the urinary system reabsobe
    moving needed substances back into theblood stream so they are not excreted
  91. how does the urinary system filtrate
    separates large from small molecules
  92. what organs are in the urinary system
    • Urethra
    • Urinary bladder
    • Ureter
    • Kidneys
  93. what specialists deal with the urinary system
    a Nephrologist or a Urologist
  94. what happens if the urinary system fails
    depends on how bad it is, but basically if your kidneys don’t function properly your body will retain water. and your liver amongst other things cannot get rid of toxins. If it is where a person doesn’t urinate then dialysis will be needed immediately or the immune system will eventually breakdown and lead to other complications.
  95. what are the functions of the digestive system
    • Excretion
    • Absorption
    • Breakdown
  96. how does the digestive system excrete
    removal of undigested food/ fiber
  97. how does the digestive system absorb 
    Capillaries within small intestine Absorb nutrients
  98. how does the digestive system breakdown
    prepares food (Chemically/ mechanically) into smaller parts so that they can be absorbed into the blood stream
  99. what are the organs in the digestive system
    • Mouth
    • Salivary glands
    • Pharynx
    • Esophagus
    • Stomach
    • Pancreas
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
    • Small intestine
    • Large intestine
  100. what specialist deals with the digestive system
     a Gastroenterologists
  101. what would happen is the digestive system failed
    the body would not be able to get the nutrients it needs, and as a result, would die.
  102. what is the structural organization of the digestive system
    • Mouth (Salivary Glands)
    • Pharynx
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • Small intestine (Gall bladder,liver,pancreas)
    • large intestine
    • Anus
  103. what system rids the body of nitrogen- containing wastes
    urinary
  104. what system is affected by the removal of the thyroid gland
    endocrine
  105. what system provides support and levers on which the muscular system can act
    Skeletal
  106. what system includes the heart
    cardiovascular
  107. what system protects underlying organs from drying out and mechanical damage
    integumentary
  108. what system protects the body; destroys bacteria and tumor cells 
    lymphatic 
  109. what system breaks down foodstuff into small particles that can be absorbed
    digestive
  110. what system removes carbon dioxide from the blood
    respiratory
  111. what system delivers oxygen and nutrients to the body tissue 
    cardiovascular
  112. what system moves the limbs; allows the facial expressions
    muscular
  113. what system conserves body water or eliminates excesses
    urinary
  114. what system allows conception  and childbearing
    reproductive
  115. what system controls the body with chemicals called hormones 
    endocrine
  116. what system is damaged when you cut your finger or get a sever sunburn
    integumentary
  117. what system includes the thymus, spleen, and lymphatic tissue
    lymphatic
  118. what system includes the pancreas, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland
    endocrine
  119. what system includes the kidneys, bladder and the ureters
    urinary
  120. what system includes the esophagus, large intestine, and rectum
    digestive
  121. what system includes the breastbone, vertebral column, and skull
    skeletal
  122. what system includes the brain, nerves, and sensory receptors
    nervous

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