Nutrition Test 1

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  1. Macronutrients
    • Maintain the organisms structural and functional integrity
    • Large nutrients
    • Biologic fuels
    • Carbohydrate, lipid and proteins
  2. Molecules
    • Two or more atoms are united
    • Chemical bonds hold the molecules together
  3. Carbohydrates
    • Monosaccharides
    • Disaccharides
    • Oligosaccharides
    • Polysaccharides
    • The number of simple sugars linked within the molecule distinguishes each carbohydrate type
  4. Monosaccharides
    • Basic unit of carbohydrates
    • One sugar
    • Hexose sugars glucose, fructose, and galactose make up the nutritionally important monos
  5. Glucose
    • Called dextrose or blood sugar
    • Used directly by the cell for energy
    • Stored as Glycogen in muscles and liver
    • Converted to fat and stored for energy
  6. Disaccharides
    • Two sugar molecules bonded together
    • Each includes glucose as principle component
    • Sucrose: Most common =  glucose+fructose
    • Lactose: Natural form only in milk = glucose+galactose
    • Maltose: two glucose molocules found in beer, cereals
  7. Oligosaccharides
    • Combo of 3-9 monosaccharides
    • Found in vegetables and see legunmes
  8. Polysaccharides
    • Combo of 10 to 1000 of monosaccharide residues by glycosidic bonds
    • Classify into plant and animal catagories
    • Usually glucose
  9. Plant Polysaccharides
    Starch and Fiber
  10. Starch
    • Accounts for 50% of total carb intake of Americans
    • Complex carbohydrate refers to dietary starch 
  11. Fiber
    • Fibrous materials resist hydrolysis by human digestive enzymes
    • Water soluble: gums (oats), pectin, legumes, barley, brown rice, peas, carrots, fruits  lower cholesterol
    • Water insoluble: cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, cellulose-rich wheat bran
  12. Animal Polysaccharides 
    • Glycogen is storage polysaccharide found in mammalian muscle and liver
    • Synthesized from glucose during glucogenesis
    • Hormones control the level of circulating blood glucose 
    • Elevated blood glucose levels --> pancreas secrete insulin forcing tissues take up excess glucose 
    • Low blood glucose, pancreas secrete glucagon to normalize levels by stimulating gluconeogenesis
  13. High Blood glucose
    • May occur due to insulin resistance (decreased effect of insulin on peripheral tissue), insulin deficiency (inadequate insulin production by the pancreas to control blood sugar) and result in type 2 diabetes
    • Type 2 when you have lots of high glycemic foods that your become resistant to the insulin
  14. Obesity
    • 25% of population produce excessive insulin from consuming rapidly absorbed carbs
    • Promotes glucose entry into cells and facilitates the livers conversion of glucose to fat in adipose tissue
    • It sets off hunger signals (rebound hypoglycemia) that makes them over eat
  15. Lipids
    • General term for heterogeneous group of compounds
    • oils, fats, waxes
    • Contains the same structural elements as carbohydrates except it differs markedly in linkage of atoms
  16. 3 Main group of Lipids
    • Simple lipids
    • Compound Lipids
    • Derived lipids
  17. Simple Lipids
    • Neutral fats
    • Consist of triacylglycerols, the most plentiful fats in the body
    • Major storage form of fat in adipose cells
  18. Saturated Fatty Acids
    • Contains only single covalent bonds between carbon atoms and rest attach to hydrogen
    • Called saturated because holds as many hydrogen as chemically possible 
    • Occur primarily in animal products
  19. Unsaturated Fatty Acids
    • Contain one or more double bonds along the main carbon chain 
    • Examples are olive oil, peanut oil, pecans, avocados  safflower
  20. Hydrogenated Fats
    • Changes oils to semisolid compounds
    • Creates firmer fat because adding hydrogen to the carbons increase lipid's melting temperature
    • Behave like saturated fat
    • Most common are lard substitutes and margarine
  21. Cis Vs Trans
    Trans unsaturated fatty acid forms when it goes from cis (same side) to trans (opposite side)
  22. Hydrogenated Fats
    • Changes oils to semisolid compounds
    • Creates firmer fat because adding hydrogen to the carbons increase lipid's melting temperature
    • Behave like saturated fat
    • Most common are lard substitues and margarine
  23. Compound Lipids
    • Consist of triacylglycerol molecule combined with other chemicals
    • Represent 10% of the body's total fat
    • Lipoproteins: provide major avenue for lipid transport in the blood
    • Bad Cholesterol LDL
    • Good Cholesterol HDL scavenger in the reverse transport of cholesterol
  24. Derived lipids
    • Formed from simple and compound lipids
    • Contain hydrocarbon rings
    • Cholesterol: most widely know derived lipid exist only in animal tissue
  25. Essential Fatty Acids
    • Body Cannot Synthesize
    • Linoleic acid
    • Alpha-linolenic acid and related omega 3
    • Oleic acid
  26. Roles of Lipids
    • Provide energy
    • Protect vital organs
    • Provide insulation from the cold
    • Transport the fat-soluble vitamins ADEK
  27. Nature of Proteins
    • Formed from amino acids
    • Peptide ponds link amino acids in chains that take on diverse forms and chemical combos
  28. Amino Acids
    • Body requires 20 different amino acids
    • Building blocks of Proteins
  29. Essential Amino Acids
    • Can't synthesize 8 amino acids so much be ingested preformed in foods.
    • Isolecine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanie, threonine, tryptophan, valine
    • Babyies can't sythesize histidine and children reduced capability for sythesizing arginie
  30. Nonessential Amino Acids
    • Body manufactures the remaining 9
    • Nonessential does note uniportant, rather they must be sythesided from other compunds already in the body at a rate to meet demands for normal growth and tissue repair
  31. Complete Protiens
    Higher quality proteins come from foods with all the essential amino acids in the quantity and the correct ratio to maintain nitrogen balance and allow tissue groth and repair
  32. Incomplete Protien
    Lacks one or more of the essential amino acids
  33. Branched Chain Amino Acids
    • BCAA refer to amino acids having aliphatic side chains that are non-linear
    • Leucine, isoleucine, valine
    • Combo of these three make up about 1/3 of skeletal muscle in human body and important role in protein synthesis
    • BCAA with carb intake following resistance exercise increases insulin output by 221% much greater than without leucine
  34. Micronutrients
    • Include vitamins and minerals
    • Don't provide energy
  35. Vitamins
    • Organic substances
    • Plants manufacture during photosynthesis
    • Provitamins are inactive precursors to vitamins
  36. Fat Soluble Vitamins
    • ADEK
    • Dissolve and stored in body's fatty tissues
  37. Water Soluble
    • Vitamin C
    • B-complex
    • Act as coenzymes (help with reactions of chemical reactions)
    • Excess if out through the urine
  38. Roles of Vitamins
    • Serve as essential links and regulators in numerous metabolic reactions
    • Regulate metabolism
    • Control process of tissue synthesis
    • Protect cell's plasma membrane
  39. Dietary Reference Intake
    DRI provide a comprehensive approach to nutritional recommendations for individuals
  40. Minerals
    • Serve as constituents 0of enzymes, hormones, and vitamines and combine with other chmicals or exist singularly
    • Consist of 22 mostly metallic elements
    • 7 major minerals and 14 minor (trace)
  41. Roles of Minerals
    • Provide structure in the formation of bones and teeth
    • Help maintain normal heart rhythm, muscle contractility, neural conductivity and acid base balance
    • Synthesize biologic nutrients
  42. Bioavailablitity
    • How much your body absorbs
    • Doesn't absorb much at all (5-10%)
    • Things that affect it are:
    • type of food
    • mineral-mineral interaction
    • vitamin-mineral interaction
    • fiber-mineral interaction
  43. Type of Food
    Small intestine readily absorbs minerals in animal products because plan binders and ditary fibers are unabailable to hinder digestion and absorption
  44. Mineral-mineral
    Many have same wight and therefore compete for absorption
  45. Mineral-Vitamin
    • Many interact together
    • vitamin D helps calcium
  46. Fiber-Mineral
    Blunts the absorption of some minerals by binding to them and passing there unabsorbed
  47. Calcium
    • Most abundant mineral in body
    • Combines with phosphorous to make bones/teeth
    • Osteoporosis is loss of bone
    • Exercise helps prevent bone loss
  48. 6 Principles for Promoting Bone Health
    • Specificity: Exercise provides a local osteogenic effect
    • Overload: Progressively increaing exercise intensity promotes continued improvement
    • Initial values:Individuals with the smallest total bone mass have the greatest potential for imporvment
    • Diminishing returns: as one approaches the biologic ceiling for bone density, further gains require greater effort
    • More not necessarily better: Bone cells become desensitized in response to prolonged mechanical loading sessions
    • Reversibility: Discontinuing exercise overload reverses the positive osteogenic effect of exercise
  49. Female Triad
    • Begins with disordered eating, amenorrhea and then osteoporosis
    • Women train intensely and cut calories below energy requirements adversely affect menstruation
    • Oligomenorrhea- irregular cycles
    • Amenorrhea- cessation of menstruation
    • Cessation removes estrogen protective effect on bone making calcium loss happen
  50. Sports Anemia
    • Reduced hemoglobin levels approaching clinical anemia
    • Due to intense training
    • Hemoglobin becomes diluted due to an increase in plasma volume
    • Decrease in hemoglobin concentration generally parallels the disproportional large expansion in plasma volume early in both endurance and resistance training
  51. Electrolytes
    • Sodium, potassium, chlorine
    • Dissolve in body as electrically charged particles called ions
  52. Water
    • Makes up 40-70 % of total body mass
    • Muscle contains 65-75 % water by weight
    • Water is only about 50% of weight of body fat
  53. Water Compartments
    • 62% (26 L of 42 L) exists in intracelllular (inside the cells)
    • 38% (16 L) in the extracellular (surrounding cell like plasma, lymph, and other fluids)
  54. Roles of Water
    • Provides structure and from to the body
    • Regulates temperature
    • Provides a medium fro substances to interact chemically
    • Transports oxygen and nutrients
  55. Hydrolysis Reactions
    • Catabolic- breakdown complex molecules into simpler ones
    • Splits up H+ and OH- from water
    • Molecules- carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins that body absorbs and assimilates
    • Ex: digestion of starches, disaccharides-monosacaharides, proteins to amino acids, lipids to glycerol and fatty acids
  56. Condensation Reactions
    • Anabolic-build larger molecules by bonding their subunits together
    • AKA dehydration synthesis
    • New bond is peptide bond
    • Ex. Join H+ and OH- to make Water
  57. Enzyme
    • Accelerate chemical reactions
    • Decrease Activation energy
    • Coenzymes facilitate enzyme action
    • Lock and key mechanism is the enzyme substrate interaction
  58. Transport Across Membranes
    • Allows some and excludes others
    • Passive transport and Active transport
  59. Passive Transport
    • Requires no energy
    • Simple diffusion: free and continuous movement. Moves from area of higher concentration to lower concentration
    • Facilitated Diffusion: passive highly selective binding of lipid-insoluble molecules to a lipid soulble carrier molecule
    • Osmosis: special case of diffusion, moving water through selectively permeable membrane (difference in water concentration on both sides of membrane)
    • Filtration: water and solutes flow passively from region higher hydrostatic pressure to one of lower pressure
  60. Active Transport
    • Requires energy
    • Sodium-postassium pump: Energy from ATP pumps ions uphill against their gradients through membrane by carrier enzyme
    • Coupled Transport: Move one direction. Molecules couple together before entering the membrane
    • Bulk Transport: moves a large number of particles and macromolecules through membrane with exocytosis (homrones, neurotransmitters and mucous) and endocytosis (membrane surround substance and pinches off moving into cytoplasm)
  61. Acid
    • Substance that dissociates(ionizes) in solution and releases hydrogen ions (H+)
    • Tastes sour
    • Litmus indicators red
    • React with bases to form salts
    • Ex: hydochloric, phosphoric, carobonic, citric, lactic, carboxylic acids
  62. Base
    • Substance that picks up or accepts H+ to form hydroxide ions (OH-) in water solutions
    • Bitter and slippery to touch
    • Litmus indicators blue
    • Ex: sodium, calcium hydroxide, aqueous olutions of ammonioa
  63. PH
    • Quantitative measure of the acidity or alkalinidty of a liquid solution (basicity)
    • Refers to concentration of protons or H+
    • pH = log 1 / [H+]
    • More H+ ph below 7 and are acidic
    • More OH- above 7.0 and are basic
    • Water has 7.0 neutral
  64. Buffers
    • Designates reactions that minimize changes in H+ concentration 
    • Chemical and physiologic mechanisms that prevent H+ changes are buffers
    • Chemical buffers, pulmonary ventilation  kidney function
  65. Chemical Buffers
    • Consists of a weak acid and a base or salt of that acid
    • Ex: bicarbonate buffer consists of the weak carbonic acids and its salt sodium bicarbonate
  66. Ventilatory Buffer
    • Increases or decreases in pulmonary ventilation
    • Any increase in [H+] in body fluids stimulates respiratory center in brain to increase pulmonary ventilation
    • Causes greate than normal amounts of carbon dioxide to leave the blode and combines with water to form corbonic acid for transport
  67. Renal Buffer
    • Kidneys contiually excrete H+ to maintain acid-base stability of body fluids
    • This controls acidity by adjusting the concentration of bicarbonate ions and so on
  68. Digestion
    • Starts with chewing into smaller pieces
    • Muscular contractions of gastrointestinal tract continue breaking it up
    • Pulverized food mixes with water secretions  as smooth muscle action move chyme through digestive tract
    • Enzymes and other chemicals help to compete breakdown
    • Promote absorption by the small intestine
  69. Mouth and Esophogus
    • Mechanical digestion increases surface area of food particles in mouth making easier to swallow
    • Peristalsis of esophagus propel small round food mass down to stomach and sphincter allows food into stomach
  70. Stomach
    • Parietal cells of the gastric glands secret hydrochloic acid and poowerful enzyme containing digestive juices 
    • Produces chyme, which is mixute of food and juices 
    • Holding tank for partially digested food before moving into small intestine
  71. Small Intestine
    • 90% of digestion occurs in first two sections of 3 meter long small intestine
    • 3 sections: duodenum, jejunum, ileum
    • Have Villi which are fingerlike protrusions that absorb nutrient
    • Each villi has lacteals that absorb most digested lipid from the intestine
    • 1-3 days to poop and 3-10 hours to move chyme through small intestine
    • Bile from gallbladder breakdown lipids through emulsification
    • Pancreas buffers stomach from acid
  72. Large Intestine
    • Absorbs water and electorlytes from chyme and has no villi
    • Bacteria ferment the remaining undigested food residue
  73. Bioenergetics
    • Refers to the flow of energy within a living system
    • Energy is capacity to do work
    • Aerobic reaction require oxygen
    • Anaerobic reactions don't require oxygen
  74. ATP and PCr
    • Energy liberated form splitting of PCr rebonds ADP and P to form ATP
    • Cells store 4 to 6 more times PCr than aTP
    • Onset of intense exercise triggers Pcr hydrolysis for energy and doesn't requir oxygen
  75. Electron Transport
    • NAD+ accepts pairs of electrons from hydrogen
    • Wile substrate oxidizes and loses H (electron) NAD+ gains on e and two electons and becomes NADH
    • Riboflavin-containg coenzyme FAD catalyzed dehydrogenations and accepts paris of electrions and becomes FADH2
    • NADH and FADH2 energy rich molecules that carry electons with a high energy transfer potential
    • Cytochromes give up electron which then form with H to make water
    • Image Upload 1
  76. Glucose Degredation
    • 1)Anaerobic: Glucose breaks down relatively rapidly to 2 molecules of pyruvate
    • 2)Aerobic: Pyruvate degrades further to carbon dioxide and water
  77. Glycolysis
    • Glycogen catabolism
    • Hydrogen release in glycolyiss
    • lactate formation
    • Image Upload 2
  78. Glycolosis Process
    • -ATP phosphate donor to glucose 6-phosphate
    • -Glucose traped and goes to body
    • -Glucose 6-phosphate  --> fructose 6 phosphate
    • -fructose gains phosphate from ATP and turns to 1.6-diphosphate under PFK(phosphofructokinase)
    • -Fructose 1,6 splits into 2 phosphorylated molecules with 3 carbon chains
    • -Decompose to pyruvate in 5 reactions

    Creates 2 pyruvate and lactic acid from NaDH oxidation
  79. Krebs Cycle (Citric acid cycle)
    • Second stage of carbohydrate breakdown
    • Degrades acetyl_CoA substrate to carbon dioxide hydrogen atoms within the mitochondria
    • Acetyl portion of aceyl-coa join with oxaloacetate to form citrate (citric acid)
    • 2 pyruvate form 20 H atoms 6CO2
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  80. Summary of Glucose Catabolism
    Image Upload 4
  81. Lipolysis
    • Fat breakdown
    • Stored fat body's most plentiful soruce of potential energy
    • Splits the triacylglycerol moecule into glycerol and 3 water insoluble fatty acid molecues
    • Hormone-sensitive lipase catalyzes tricylglycerol breakdown
  82. Lipogenesis
    • Formation of fat mostly in the cytoplasm ofl iver cells
    • Ingested excess glucose or protein not used immediately to sustain metoabolis monverst into stored triaclglycerol
    • Begins with carbons from glucose and carbon sekeltons form amino acid molecules that metabolize to acetly-Coa
  83. Breakdown of Proteins
    • amino acids convert to enter pathway for energy release which reqires nitrogen removal 
    • Deamination: nitrogen removal from amino acid
    • Transamination: when an amino acid is passed to another compound
    • Once amion acid loses nintrogene amine group
    • The remaining carbon skeltons enter metabolic pathways to produce ATP
  84. Energy Conversions
    Image Upload 5
  85. Energy Transfer
    • Exist along a continuum
    • Extreme: high energy phosphates ATP and PCr supply most energy last 2 min and aerobic reaction are rest
    • Intense: MOre aerobic energy transfer
    • Low: steady energy supply derieved areobicall with out lactate formation
    • Higeher intensities and shorder duration activites have higher deman on anerobic energy transfer
  86. Two Main macronutrient sources
    • Provide energy for aTP resythesis
    • 1)liver and muscle glycogent
    • 2) triacylglycerols within adipose tissue and active muscle
  87. Role of Food and exercise
    • Shows the contripution to energy metaboloism at rest and during excersize
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  88. Trained Muscle
    • Exhibits a greater capacity to oxidize carbohydrate 
    • Has augmented capacity to catabolize carbohydrate aerobically fro energy
    • Greater fat use during submaximal exercise, less reliance on muscle glycogen and blood glucose
  89. Gender Differences
    • Women dervive smaller proportion energy from carbs oxidation than men during submax
    • Following aerobic exercise training women show exaggerated shift toward fat catabolism
  90. Effects of Diet
    • Carbohydrate-deficient diet depletes muscle and liver glycogen
    • Low carb levels affect both anerobic capacity and prolonged high intensity
    • When low, intensity decrese to level determined by how well body mobilizes and oxidizes fat
Card Set:
Nutrition Test 1

Test 1
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