Qrt 2 Spinal Neurology Exam 2 alatar notecards

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bradley.knox
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Qrt 2 Spinal Neurology Exam 2 alatar notecards
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2013-02-04 14:59:06
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  1. What is the function of plasma protease thromine?
    Converts soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin clot
  2. What induces endothelial cell junction retraction and cytoskeleton reorganization in inflammation? 
    Cytokines mediators
  3. What type of inflammation is characterized by necrotic and eroded epithelial surface due to trauma, toxins or vascular insufficiency?
    Ulcerative
  4. What type of inflammation is characterized by pus formation?
    Suppurative
  5. Where does catalase break hydrogen peroxide down to water and oxygen during phagocytosis?
    Within the phagolysosome
  6. What type of chemical mediator is the  compliment system
    Plasma Driven
  7. Serotonin release is triggered by
    platelet aggregation
  8. Defects of leukocyte function due to defects of microbicidal activity are caused by
    Impaired oxygen dependent killing system
  9. The PMNs kill by halogenation helped by
    oxygen species
  10. In acute inflammation, C5a helps
    leukocyte chemotaxin
  11. BPI is an antimicrobial that acts as
    Bactericidal permeability increasing protein
  12. What is elevated WBC called?
    Leukocytosis
  13. Nitric Oxide is a vasodilator produced by
    endothelial cells and macrophages
  14. What is the cell memebrane phospholipid that causes vasodilation, increased vascularpermeability and leukocyte adhesion?
    PAF
  15. Defects of leukocyte function due to defects of chemotaxis/phagocytosis are caused by
    impaired locomotion and lysosomal degranulation
  16. What acts as chemotaxins, vasoconstrictors, cause increased vascular permeability, and bronchospasm?
    Leukotrienes
  17. where does degranulation and clean up occur?
    within phagolysosome
  18. What help the leukocyte recognize and bind to antigen?
    opsinization
  19. In inflammation what is the function of lysosomal acid hydrolases?
    degrade dead microorganism
  20. What is released by mast cells, basophils, platelets in response to injury
    Histamine
  21. In acute inflammation C3a and C5a induce
    vasodilation, vascular permeability, mast cell degranulation
  22. When monocytes depart the circulation to tissues they become
    macrophages
  23. In acute inflammation, C3b and C3bi
    function as opsonins, increasing phagocytosis
  24. In Inflammation, cytokines, LTB4, soluble bacterial products and C5a all act as
    chemotaxins
  25. prostogladins are
    cell-derived chemical mediators that are synthesized as needed
  26. In granulomatous Inflammation the macrophages form?
    epitheiliod mass
  27. What does the activation of the clotting System lead too?
    Cascade of plasma protease
  28. Durning inflammation, the formation of bradykinin causes
    pain and non-vascular smooth muscle contraction
  29. The vasoactive amines include:
    histamine and seratonin
  30. T and B lymphocytes release
    macrophage-activating cytokines
  31. Abscesses occur as outcome of
    bacterial or fungal infections
  32. Chronic inflammation is accompained by
    tissue infiltration by lymphocyte, macrophage and plasma cell
  33. what is due to an oxidative burst that induces engulfment and formation of phagolysosome
    Phagocytosis
  34. Defensins are antimicrobials that act by
    punching holes in membranes
  35. Leukocytosis and fever are associated with
    the systemic effects of inflammation
  36. Defects of leukocyte function due to defects of adhesion are caused by
    LFA-1 and Mac-1 subunit defects or absence of sialyl-Lewis X, and defect in E- and P-selectin sugar epitopes (LAD-2)
  37. In inflammation the widen intercellular gaps of venules is due to the release of
    histamines, bradykinins and leukotrienes
  38. What is the cell memebrane phospholipid that causes vasodilation, increased vascularpermeability and leukocyte adhesion?
    PAF
  39. A blister is a form of
    serous inflammation
  40. Suppurative inflammation is characterized by
    the presence of pus
  41. Cytokines are
    protein cell products that act on other cells, telling them how to behave
  42. Serotonin release is triggered by
    platelet aggregation
  43. What is a malignant tumor of the pleura?
    Mesothelioma
  44. What is a benign tumor of fat cells
    Lipoma
  45. How do malignant tumors spread?
    infiltration
  46. Arsenic is a carcinogen assocaited with cancer of
    • lung
    • skin 
    • blood
  47. Paraneoplastic syndromes are
    casused by the ectopic production and secretion of bioactive substances
  48. Radon is a carcinogen assocaited with cancer of
    lung
  49. Tumors grading is determined by
    cytologic appearence
  50. What is a benign parenchymal cell tumor that affects bone
    Osteoma
  51. Ethylene oxide is a carcinogen assocaited with
    leukemia
  52. what is a benign tumor of cartilage
    Chondroma
  53. What is a malignant tumor of the placenta
    Choriocarcinoma
  54. what is a malignant tumor of melanocytes
    Melanoma
  55. Analpasia is indicative of
    poorly or completely undifferentiated tumor
  56. Triple A effect in a case of cancer includes:
    Athenia, Anorexia and Anemia
  57. What are malignant tumors of epithelial tissue origin
    carcinomas
  58. The most deadly malignant tumor among United States adults is
    cancer of the lung
  59. Athenia, anorexia and anemia are manifestation of
    cachexia
  60. how do benign tumors spread?
    expansion
  61. Sarcoma spread through
    blood
  62. Vinyl chloride is a carcinogen assocaited with cancer of
    blood vessels and liver
  63. The autosomal dominant predisposition to hereditary cancers are linked to
    inheritance of a germ-line mutation of cancer suppressor genes
  64. what are malignant tumors of connective tissue origin
    sarcomas
  65. Tumor antigens are presented on the cell surface by MHC class I molecules and are recognized by
    CD8+ and TCL's
  66. encapsulation occurs in what type of tumor?
    benign
  67. Beryllium is a carcinogen assocaited with cancer of
    Lung
  68. what are malignant tumors of the hematopieotic cells of the bone marrow
    leukemia
  69. Cadmium is a carcinogen assocaited with cancer of
    prostate
  70. Nickel is a carcinogen assocaited with cancer of
    nose, lung
  71. what is a benign tumor of smooth muscle
    liomyoma
  72. what is a benign tumor of melanocytes
    nevus
  73. what is a benign tumor of skeletal muscle
    Rhabdomyoma
  74. Carcinomas tend to spread through
    lymph
  75. What are autosomal recessive cancers associated with
    inherited defects in dna repair
  76. what is due to the release of cytokines by the tumor or host
    cachexia
  77. what is a benign tumor of cartilage
    chondroma
  78. what is a benign tumor of surface epithelium
    papiloma
  79. what type of tumor is anaplastic
    malignant
  80. The most common malignant tumor among United States adult females
    breast carcinoma
  81. Benzene is a carcinogen assocaited with
    leukemia, and Hodgkin Lymphoma
  82. what are malignant tumors of epithelial tissue origin
    carcinomas
  83. The most common malignant tumor among United States adult males
    prostatic carcinoma
  84. what is a mixed malignant tumor
    immature teratoma
  85. Asbestos is a carcinogen assocaited with cancer of
    • lung
    • pleura 
    • GIT
  86. what is a malignant tumor of the kidney
    Wilms tumor
  87. Basal cell carcinoma is a
    locally malignant tumor
  88. what is a benign tumor of glandular epithelium
    adenoma

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