Chem II Exam 5

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studytaz
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197875
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Chem II Exam 5
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2013-02-06 15:26:28
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Biochemistry
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Chem II Exam 5 Biochemistry
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  1. the branch of chemistry dealing with compounds produced by living organisms
    • Biochemistry
    • Physiological Chemistry
    • Biological Chemistry
  2. involves all the chemical processes of the body that occur in health and disease
    • Biochemistry
    • Physiological Chemistry
    • Biological Chemistry
  3. derivatives of polyhydroxy alcohols containing an aldehyde or a ketone group (carbonyl group)
    carbohydrates
  4. compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen
    carbohydrates
  5. name ending is -ose
    carbohydrates
  6. carbohydrate with an aldehyde group (carbonyl group at end of chain)
    Aldose
  7. carbohydrate with a ketone group (carbonyl group on inner carbon)
    Ketose
  8. starches, sugar, cellulose, glycogen
    carbohydrates
  9. the simplest of carbohydrates
    monosaccharides
  10. these are the building blocks of carbohydrates
    monosaccharides
  11. those monosaccharides that are most important to humans
    those with a Hexose formula
  12. they contain six carbons
    those with a Hexose formula
  13. these are isomers of C6H12O6
    those with a Hexose formula
  14. dextrose, grape sugar, blood sugar
    glucose
  15. levulose, fruit sugar
    fructose
  16. nerve & brain tissue
    galactose
  17. two saccharide groups
    disaccharides
  18. formula - C12H22O11
    (2 monosaccharides - H2O)
    disaccharides
  19. cane sugar, table sugar
    sucrose
  20. sucrose is made up of
    glucose & fructose
  21. sucrose upon hydrolysis will yield
    glucose & fructose
  22. malt sugar
    maltose
  23. maltose is made up of
    • glucose & glucose
    • (2 molecules of glucose)
  24. maltose upon hydrolysis will yield
    • glucose & glucose
    • (2 molecules of glucose)
  25. milk sugar
    lactose
  26. lactose is made up of
    galactose & glucose
  27. lactose upon hydrolysis will yield
    galactose & glucose
  28. many saccharide groups
    polysaccharides
  29. the most complex of all carbohydrates
    polysaccharides
  30. glucose, fructose, & galactose
    monosaccharides
  31. sucrose, maltose, & lactose
    disaccharides
  32. starch, glycogen, & cellulose
    polysaccharides
  33. found in plants such as tubers (root) and grains
    starch
  34. the most important polysaccharide to man
    starch
  35. upon complete hydrolysis these will yield glucose molecules
    starch
  36. found as a stored polysaccharide in the liver of man and other animals
    glycogen
  37. this is how our bodies store sugars for later use
    glycogen
  38. found in the make-up of many plants
    cellulose (fiber)
  39. it is not digestible by the human digestive tract so it serves only as a bulking agent
    cellulose (fiber)
  40. splitting apart by water
    hydrolysis of carbohydrates
  41. end products of carbohydrate hydrolysis
    monosaccharides
  42. cannot be further hydrolized
    a monosaccharide
  43. animal metabolism of carbohydrates
    oxidation of carbohydrates
  44. end products are carbon dioxide & water
    oxidation of carbohydrates
  45. the chief source of body energy is the metabolism of carbs
    oxidation of carbohydrates
  46. carbohydrates yield
    4 calories per gram
  47. the opposite of photosynthesis
    oxidation of carbohydrates
  48. the process by which plants convert carbon dioxide, water and solar energy into carbohydrates and oxygen with the presence of the catalyst chlorophyll
    photosynthesis
  49. the anaerobic breakdown of carbohydrates through the action of enzymes produced by microorganisms
    fermentation
  50. glyceryl esters of fatty acids
    lipids/fats/oils
  51. esters of glycerol and fatty acids
    lipids/fats/oils
  52. sometimes called glycerides
    lipids/fats/oils
  53. required elements are the same as carbohydrates - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
    lipids/fats/oils
  54. required elements are the same as carbohydrates
    - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
    - may also contain nitrogen and phosphorus
    lipids/fats/oils
  55. composition of lipids/fats/oils
    glycerol & fatty acids
  56. combined together through esterification (process of making an ester)
    glycerol & fatty acids
  57. they are carboxylic acids Rx-COOH
    fatty acids
  58. if the Rx (carbon chain) is saturated then the lipid is a fat
    it's a solid at room temperature
  59. if the Rx (carbon chain) is unsaturated then the lipid is an oil
    it's a liquid at room temperature
  60. examples of oils
    • stearic acid
    • palmitic acid
    • oleic acid
  61. end products are carbon dioxide, water, & energy
    oxidation of lipids
  62. lipids are superior to carbohydrates as a source of energy
    oxidation of lipids
  63. they yield 9 calories per gram
    oxidation of lipids
  64. may be stored in the body in unlimited quantities
    lipids/fats/oils
  65. serve to prevent dehydration of body cells
    lipids/fats/oils
  66. serve to insulate the body in terms of heat
    lipids/fats/oils
  67. serve to "cushion" certain body organs
    lipids/fats/oils
  68. end products are glycerol & fatty acids
    hydrolysis of lipids
  69. the alkaline hydrolysis of a fat or oil
    saponification of lipids
  70. the natural process of body decomposition
    saponification of lipids
  71. the alkaline substance used is usually NaOH
    saponification of lipids
  72. the end products of saponification are
    glycerol & soap
  73. the product formed when an alkali such as NaOH reacts with a fatty acid
    soap
  74. when there are calcium containing compounds present at saponification, the end products include
    adipocere (grave wax) & glycerol
  75. the product formed from the saponification of fatty acids in the dead human body by calcium containing compounds
    adipocere (grave wax)
  76. a compound that is wax like in appearance but is chemically more like a soap
    adipocere (grave wax)
  77. a compound whose hydrolytic products are fatty acids and slcohols
    simple lipid
  78. a lipid whose hydrolytic products are fatty acids, an alcohol, and some other ompound
    compound lipid
  79. lipids that are esters of fatty acids and high molecular weight alcohols other than glycerol
    waxes
  80. these are the fundamental constituents of all living matter
    proteins
  81. the building blocks of living things
    proteins
  82. the most complex of the organic compounds, they have extremely large and complex structures
    proteins
  83. required elements: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, & nitrogen

    but may also contain sulfur, phosphorus, iodine, iron
    proteins
  84. made up of amino acids
    proteins
  85. organic or carboxilic acids containing nitrogen
    amino acids
  86. these are the building blocks of proteins
    amino acids
  87. examples of amino acids
    • glycine (aminoacetic acid)
    • alanine (2-amino propanoic acid)
  88. long chains of amino acids are known as proteins or polypeptides
    amino acids
  89. growth of new cells
    • amino acids
    • proteins
  90. maintenance of existing cells
    • amino acids
    • proteins
  91. synthesis (production) of enzymes
    • amino acids
    • proteins
  92. synthesis (production) of hormones
    • amino acids
    • proteins
  93. production of protein components of the blood (such as hemoglobin)
    • amino acids
    • proteins
  94. proteins possess the characteristics of both an acid and a base
    amphoteric properties
  95. this allows them to act as buffers in body metabolism when in solution
    amphoteric properties
  96. maintains pH balance
    buffer
  97. anything that resists change in pH
    buffer
  98. the method by which amino acids are connected to one another
    • peptide linkage
    • (peptide bond)
  99. occurs by the dehydration between the carboxyl group (-COOH) of one amino acid and the amino group (-NH2) of another amino acid
    • peptide linkage
    • (peptide bond)
  100. long chains of amino acids
    • polypeptides
    • proteins
  101. proteins and amino acids have the same properties
    • polypeptides
    • proteins
  102. the ability to absorb water
    imbibition
  103. this can lead to the swelling and softening of tissues and organs as a result of the proteins absorbing water from adjacent sources
    imbibition
  104. end products are amino acids
    hydrolysis of proteins
  105. end products are carbon dioxide, water, nitrogenous wastes
    oxidation of proteins
  106. urea, ammonium salts
    nitrogenous wastes
  107. the conversion of complex substances into simpler compounds
    catabolism
  108. the destructive aspect of metabolism
    catabolism
  109. an example is digestion
    catabolism
  110. the processes that build complex substances from simpler compounds
    anabolism
  111. the constructive aspects of metabolism
    anabolism
  112. the storing of glycogen in the liver
    anabolism
  113. 2 processes that occur in the metabolism of proteins
    • 1. deamination
    • 2. decarboxylation
  114. the process by which the amino group is removed from an amino acid as part of the catabolism (breakdown) of amino acids
    deamination
  115. the amino group removed by this process is converted by the liver into ammonium salts and urea which are highly soluble and may be excreted by the kidneys in urine
    deamination
  116. the simple removal of the carboxyl group from an amino acid as part of the catabolism of amino acids
    decarboxylation
  117. this process leads to the formation of the carbon dioxide and water
    decarboxylation
  118. these 2 processes occur simultaneously during putrefaction
    • 1. deamination
    • 2. decarboxylation
  119. decomposition of proteins
    putrefaction
  120. anaerobic oxydation of proteins by bacteria
    putrefaction
  121. end products of putrefaction
    • 1. ammonia containing compounds
    • 2. Ptomaines such as puprecine & cadavarine
    • 3. hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
  122. formaldehyde reacts with proteins at the _____ bond to denature them
    peptide
  123. the disruption and breakdown of the secondary structure of a protein by heat or chemicals
    denaturation
  124. the effect of formaldehyde on the ____________ ____________ of proteins causes the proteins to coagulate and to become firm
    peptide linkages
  125. the process of forming the insoluble state of a protein by heating or contact with a chemical such as an alcohol or an aldehyde
    coagulation
  126. formaldehyde acts as a ____________ by retarding the decomposition of proteins in a dead human body
    preservative
  127. the ________________ of proteins in a living body is a toxic reaction
    denaturing
  128. ____ ___________ ________ _ ______renders the protein useless as a food source to bacteria
    the disinfecting effect of formaldehyde
  129. aids in preserving body proteins
    formaldehyde
  130. the breaking apart of the peptide linkages to form amino acids
    decomposition of the body proteins
  131. if the decomposition of the body proteins has already begun ____?
    the amino acids will react with the formaldehyde on a 1 to 1 basis
  132. the reason for a higher formaldehyde demand on decomposing bodies
    the amino acids will react with the formaldehyde on a 1 to 1 basis
  133. Why should embalming of a dead body be performed as soon as possible?
    decomposition of proteins is not reversible
  134. proteins that act as biological catalysts
    enzymes
  135. alters the speed of a chemical reaction
    catalyst
  136. the substance upon which an enzyme will act
    substrate
  137. each enzyme will act upon only one given substrate
    specificity
  138. enzyme suffixes
    • -ase
    • -in
  139. carbohydrate enzyme
    carbohydrase
  140. protein enzyme
    protease
  141. lipid & fat enzyme
    lipase
  142. enzymes that help the human body to self digest as a part of decomposition
    autolytic enzymes
  143. self digestion of the body as a part of decomposition
    autolysis

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