Ch 4 - Study Guide

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  1. classical division of tissues into 4 basic types
    • 1) Epithelial tissue
    • covers, protective surface
    • -lining of digestive tract and hollow organs; skin surface (epidermis)

    • 2) connective tissue
    • supports
    • - bones; tendons; fat and other soft tissue padding

    • 3) muscle tissue
    • produces movement
    • -skeletal muscles attached to bones; cardiac muscles form heart; smooth muscles localized surrounding hollow organs

    • 4) nerve tissue
    • controls
    • - brain; spinal cord; nerves
  2. studying human tissue: microscopy
    Fixed (preserved) - chemical to immobolize and cross-link proteins

    Cut - sliced thin enough to transmit light or electrons

    Stained - enhances contrast and/or localizes distinct proteins, DNA, or RNA
  3. epithelial tissue (epithelium)
    sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity

    • 2 forms:
    • 1) covering and lining epithelia
    • -- on external and internal surfaces

    • 2) glandular epithelia
    • -- made up of cells that produce secretions
  4. epithelial tissue function
    • protection
    • absorption
    • filtration
    • excretion
    • secretion
    • sensory reception
  5. Five characteristics of epithelial tissues
    • 1) polarity
    • 2) specialized contracts
    • 3) supported by connective tissues
    • 4) avascular, but innervated (no blood vessels)
    • 5) can regenerate
  6. characteristic of epithelial tissue

    apical/basal.  Since epithelial tissues line body cavities and covers body's external surface, polarity w/one free (apical) surface is a must.

    - apical surface (upper free) exposed to exterior or cavity; face away from underlying tissue

    -basal surface (lower, attached) side we can't see unless we cut ourselves

    both surfaces differ in structure and function

    •                               apical
    • Image Upload 1
    •                             basal
  7. apical surface of epithelial tissue  (characteristic Polarity)
    upper free surface exposed to the body exterior or the cavity of internal organ

    • may be smooth & slick
    • most have microvilli - increase surface area (ex: brush border of intestinal lining)
    • some have cilia (ex: lining of trachea)
  8. basal surface of epithelial tissues (characteristic polarity)
    noncellular basal lamina

    • glycoprotein and collagen fibers lies adjacent to basal surface (gives strength and elasticity)
    • adhesive sheet
    • selective filler
    • scaffolding for cell migration in wound repair
  9. characteristics of epithelial tissue:

    specialized contacts
    fit close together to form continuous sheets. 

    tight junctions and desmosomes bind adjacent cells together. 

    Tight junctions keep proteins in apical region of plasma membrane from diffusing into basal region ----> maintain epithelial polarity
  10. basement membrane
    • reinforce epithelial sheet and helps it resist stretching and tearing. 
    • Defines epithelial boundaries
  11. innervated
    supplied by nerve fibers
  12. characteristic epithelial:

    connective tissue support
    all epithelial are supported by connective tissue

    reticular lamina = deep to basal lamina; network of collagen fibers

    • basement membrane =
    • basal lamina + reticular lamina
    • reinforces epithelial sheet and helps it resist stretching and tearing
    • defines epithelial boundaries
  13. characteristic epithelial tissue:

    avascular but innervated
    • There are no blood vessels in epithelial tissue!!
    • must be nourished by diffusion from underlying connective tissue

    epithelial tissue is supplied by nerve fibers (it is innervated by neurons; supplied by nerve fibers)
  14. characteristic of epithelial tisse:

    epithelial tissue has high regenerative capacity.  Some surface cells may rub off or become damaged by hostile external environment.  Also can heal itself from wound.
  15. six different types of epithelia
    1) simple - single cell layer.  Typically found where absorption, secretion, and filtration occur and a thin barrier is desired

    2) stratified - two or more cell layers stacked on top of each other, are common in high-abrasion areas where protection is important, such as skin surface and lining of mouth

    3) squamous - flattened and scalelike.  Flat oval nucleus.

    4) cuboidal - boxlike, approx as tall as they are wide.  Nucleus is circular

    5) columnar - tall and column shaped.  Nucleus is oblong and toward bottom.

    6) pseudostratified - cells varies in height, gives false impression that several layers are present
  16. describe stratified squamous; location and function
    • Most widespread of stratified epithelia
    • Function: protects underlying tissues in areas subjected to abrasion -- protects skin
    • Found in: esophagus

    • -free surface squamous; deeper layers cuboidal or columnar
    • -located for wear or tear
    • -those farthest from basal area (and nutrients) are less viable
  17. describe transitional epithelia; location and function
    • Function: stretches readily, permits stored urine to distend urinary organ
    • Found in: bladder

    resembles both stratified squamous and cuboidal

    • -forms lining of hollow urinary organs
    • -basal layer cells are cuboidal or columnar
    • -ability to change shape with stretch
    • -apical cells vary in appearance
  18. function and example for simple epithelia
    • simple squamous - rapid diffusion; lung
    • simple cuboidal - secretion, absorption; kidney
    • simple columnar - absorption, secretion of mucous, enzymes, and other substances; gallbladder - nonciliated type lines most of digestive tract
  19. classification of all epithelia
    all epithelial tissues have 2 names:

    • 1) one name indicates number of cell layers=
    • -- simple epithelia = single layer of cells
    • -- stratified epithelia = two or more layers of cells
    •        shape can change in different layers

    • 2) one name indicates shape of cells=
    • -- squamous = oddly shaped
    • -- cuboidal = cubes/square
    • -- columnar = columns
    •      in stratified epithelia, epithelia classified by cell shape in apical layer
  20. gland
    • one or more cells that makes and secretes an aqueous fluid called a secretion
    • -- digestive enzymes come out as watery fluid

    organ specialized to secrete or excrete substances for further use in body or for elimination
  21. unicellular exocrine gland, function, and where they are found
    mucous cells and goblet cells are the only important unicellular glands

    found in epithelial linings of intestinal and respiratory tracts

    all produce mucin which dissolves in water to form mucus
  22. multicellular exocrine glands and description (structure, type of secretion)
    • composed of a duct and secretory gland
    • -- bottom of gland will have cells to secrete, duct does not secrete anymore

    • structure:
    • -simple glands (unbranched duct) or compound glands (branched)
    • -cells tubular, aveolar, or tubuloalveolal

    • type of secretion:
    • -merocrine = most secrete products by exocytosis
    • -holocrine = accumulate products w/n then rupture
    • -apocrine = accumulates products w/in but only apex ruptures - controversary if exists in humans
  23. 4 main classes of connective tissues
    • 1) connective tissue proper
    • 2) cartilage
    • 3) bone
    • 4) blood
  24. major functions of connective tissue
    • binding and support
    • protecting
    • insulating
    • storing reserve fuel
    • transporting substances (blood)
  25. 3 characteristics of connective tissues
    1) common origin - all connective tissues arise from mesenchyme (an embryonic tissue)

    2) degrees of vascularity - rich supply of blood vessels

    3) extracellular matrix - nonliving units which separates the living cells of the tissue.  Because of it's matrix, connective tissue can bear weight, great tension, and endure abuses like physical trauma and abrasions that no other tissue can tolerate.
  26. 3 structural elements of connective tissue
    • 1) ground substance - unstructured material that fills space between cells
    • -- medium (sieve) through which nutrients and other solutes can diffuse b/w blood capillaries and the cells

    • 2) fibers - provides support
    • -- collagen= strongest and most abundant; tough
    • -- elastic fibers= networks of long, thin, elastin fibers that allow for stretch and recoil
    • --reticular= short, fine, highly branched collagenous fibers (different chemistry and form than collagen fibers).  Branch, forming networks that offer more "give"

    • 3) cells -
    • -- "Blasts" cells = immature, mitotically active (can still divide), secrete ground substance and fibers
    • *fibroblasts in connective tissue proper
    • *chondroblasts in cartilage
    • *osteoblasts in bone
    • *hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow

    • -- "cyte" cells = mature form; maintain matrix
    • *chondrocytes in cartilage
    • *osteocytes in bone
    • *erythrocytes (red blood cells)
    • *leukocytes (white blood cells)

    • other cell types in connective tissues:
    • -fat cells (store nutrients)
    • -white blood cells (tissue response to injury)
    • -mast cells (initiate local inflammatory response)
    • -macrophages (phagocyte cells that "eat" dead cells, microorganisms; function in immune system)
  27. "blast" cells
    • immature
    • mitotically active - can still divide
    • secrete ground substance and fibers

    • -fibroblasts= connective tissue proper
    • -chondroblasts= cartilage
    • -osteoblasts= bone
    • -hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow
  28. "cyte" cells
    mature; maintain matrix

    • chondrocytes= cartilage
    • osteocytes= bone
    • erythrocytes= red blood cells
    • leukocytes= white blood cells
  29. subclasses of loose and dense connective tissues
    • loose connective tissue
    • -areolar (support and bind other tissues)
    • -adipose (white fat-greater nutrient storage that areolar, brown fat- not to produce ATP)
    • -reticular (resembles areolar; supports free blood cells in lymph nodes, spleen, and marrow)

    • dense connective tissue (aka fibrous)
    • -dense regular (closely packed bundles of collagen parallel to direction of pull - fibers wavy to stretch a little) few cells, poorly vascularized
    • -dense irregular (collagen bundles thicker and irregularly arranged)
    • -elastic (some ligaments very elastic; many larger arteries have in walls)
  30. 3 types of cartilage
    • hyaline cartilage
    • elastic cartilage
    • fibrocartilage
  31. cartilage - cell types, structure, function
    • cell types:
    • chondroblasts (immature)
    • chondrocytes (mature)

    • cartilage stands up to both tension and compression
    • tough but flexible
    • lacks nerve fibers
    • avascular - receives nutrients from membrane surrounding it (perichondrium)
  32. bone - aka osseous tissue
    • supports and protects body structures
    • stores fat and synthesizes blood cells in cavities
    • more collagen than cartilage
    • has inorganic calcium salts
    • osteoblasts produce matrix
    • osteocytes maintain matrix
    • osteons = structural units
    • richly vascularized - blood in fresh bone
  33. blood
    functions in transport - gases, nutrients, waste products

    • -most atypical connective tissue = fluid
    • -erythrocytes (rbc) most common cell type (no nucleus)
    • -also contains leukocytes (wbc) and platelets (throbocytes)
    • -fibers soluble proteins that precipitate during blood clotting
  34. 3 types of muscle tissue
    highly vascularized; responsible for most types of movement

    • 1) skeletal muscle tissue
    • - found in skeletal muscle
    • - voluntary
    • - long, cylindrical, obvious striations

    • 2) cardiac muscle tissue
    • -found in walls of heart
    • -involuntary
    • - branching, striated, uninucleate cells

    • 3) smooth muscle tissue
    • - mainly in walls of hollow organs other than heart
    • - involuntary
    • - spindle shaped cells; no striations; cells close to form sheets
  35. nervous tissue
    • main component of nervous system
    • - brain, spinal cord, nerves
    • - regulates and controls body functions

    • neurons
    • -signal
    • - specialized nerve cells that generate and conduct nerve impulses

    • Glia
    • - supporting cells that support, insulate, and protect neurons
  36. 3 steps of tissue repair
    • 1) inflammation
    • - vasodilation and blood clotting

    • 2) restoration of blood supply
    • - begin of regeneration
    • - blood clot replaced w/granulation tissue
    • - debris is phagocytized

    • 3) regeneration and fibrosis
    • - scab detaches
    • - fibrous tissue matures; epithelium thickens and begins to resemble adjacent tissue
    • - results in fully regenerated epithelium w/underlying scar tissue
  37. what is the difference between regeneration and fibrosis?
    regeneration = same kind of tissue replaces destroyed tissue and original function is restored

    fibrosis = connective tissue replaces destroyed tissue and original function is lost
  38. regenerative capacity in different tissues
    • regenerate extremely well
    • - epithelial tissues, bone, areolar connective tissue, dense irregular connective tissue, blood-forming tissue

    • moderate regenerating capacity
    • - smooth muscle and dense regular connective tissue

    • virtually no functional regenerative capacity
    • - cardiac muscle and nervous tissue of brain and spinal cord.  ex-- heart attack
    • - new research shows cells division does occur

    nervous tissue does not regenerate
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Ch 4 - Study Guide
2013-02-09 04:27:50

things on study guide ch 4
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