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- guerrilla army of Guiseppe Girabaldi
- invaded Sicily in 1860
- in an attempt to liberate it
- won the hearts of the Sicilian peasantry.
- German customs union
- founded in 1834
- to stimulate trade and increase revenues of member states
- result of the American Civil War
- gave western land to settlers,
- This reinforcing the concept of free labor in a market economy.
- a new institution of local government
- in reformed Russia
- members were elected by a three-class system of towns, peasant villages, and noble landowners.
- massacre of peaceful protesters
- at Winters Square in St. Petersburg
- in 1905
- turned ordinary workers against the tsar
- produced a wave of general indignation.
- result of a great general strike in October 1905,
- it granted full civil rights
- promised a popularly electedduma (parliament) with real legislative power.
- Russian parliament opened in 1906,
- elected indirectly by universal male suffrage
- with absolute veto power from the tsar.
popularly elected lower house of government of the new German Empire after 1871.
- struggle for civilization,
- Bismarck’s attack on the Catholic church resulting from Pius IX’s declaration of papal infallibility in 1870.
- a divisive case in which Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the French army was falsely accused and convicted of treason.
- The Catholic Church sided with the anti-Semites against Dreyfus;
- because of this, the French government severed all ties between the state and church.
- proposed after the liberal party came to power in England in 1906
- vetoed by the lords,
- it was designed to increase spending on social welfare issues.
- movement toward Jewish political nationhood,
- started by Theodor Herzl.
- an effort by various socialists to update Marxian doctrines
- to reflect the realities of the time.
Revolution of 1905
- result of discontent from Russian factory workers and peasants
- as well as an emerging nationalist sentiment among the empires minorities.