CTR Exam SEER Study#1

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UcanDoIt
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197973
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CTR Exam SEER Study#1
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2013-02-25 22:57:55
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Cancer Characteristics
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Cancer Characteristics, benign or malignant tumors
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  1. A recent lump under the skin of the thigh which was found to contain new cells or tissue would be called a tumor or neoplasm. Which of the statements below probably describes a neoplasm?

    a. A swelling around the ankle that was found to contain "old blood".
    b. A callus on the finger of a baseball player.
    c. A recent swelling aout a scratch.
    d. A recent lump under the arm that feels as if it contains fleshy material.
    d. A recent lump under the arm that feels as if it contains fleshy material.

                                                            
  2. A patient was found to have a tumor. It had been slowly enlarging for five years, but there apparently was no evidence of invasion or metastases. The tumor prabably is:
    a. Malignant.
    b. Benign.
    c. Can't say.
    b. Benign.
  3. How would you classify a new growth that appears to be spreading and ulcerated?
    a. Probably a benign tumor or benign neoplasm.
    b. Probably a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm.
    c. Can't say.
    b. Probably a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm.
  4. Which of the following statements best describes the difference between a malignant tumor and a benign tumor?
    [ ] a. Malignant tumors grow much larger than benign tumors.
    [ ] b. Malignant tumors grow much faster than benign tumors.
    [ ] c. Malignant tumors spread to other organs; benign tumors do not spread to other organs.
    • c--Malignant tumors spread to adjacent organs and tissues or metastasize to distant sites.
    • Benign tumors do not do this. That is the most important distinction between benign and malignant tumors.
  5. A patient was diagnosed as having a breast cancer and a lung cancer. The lung was called a metastatic site. Where in the body did the lung cancer begin--that is, where was its primary site?
    • The primary site for this cancer was the breast. The cancer began in the breast. Calling the lung a metastatic site is the same as saying that the lung tumor is a "secondary" tumor.
    • It is composed of cells that came from some other place in the body--in this example, from the breast.
  6. A new mass of tissue that has been growing in size for two months is probably:
    [ ] a. A benign tumor.
    [ ] b. A malignant tumor.
    [ ] c. Either benign or malignant.
    [ ] d. Neither benign nor malignant.
    • c--Either benign or malignant. Both benign and malignant tumors may grow. However,
    • benign tumors may stop growing of their own accord.
    • This is quite unlikely for a malignant neoplasm. A biopsy and microscopic examination must be made to determine specifically whether a tumor is malignant or benign.
  7. Which of the following statements best describes a cancerous condition?
    [ ] a. The neoplasm appeared two months ago and has doubled in size since that time.
    [ ] b. The neoplasm ceased to grow after a two-month period.
    [ ] c. After the first occurrence of the neoplasm, a secondary site of neoplasm appeared.
    [ ] d. The new growth appeared to have no planned physiological function.
    • c--This best describes the condition of spread or metastasis which is the main distinction
    • between benign and malignant neoplasms.
  8. By definition a tumor or neoplasm has two basic characteristics. Describe these characteristics in
    your own words.
    a. ___________________________________ 
    b. _________________________________
    • a--New growth of cells; a mass of tissue composed of new cells
    • b--No known useful physiological function
  9. Tumors are classified into two main types. What are these two types?
    a. _________________________________
    b. _________________________________
    • a--Benign tumor, sometimes called benign neoplasm
    • b--Malignant tumor, sometimes called malignant neoplasm
  10. A tumor is defined in terms of two basic characteristics. A cancer or malignant tumor possesses these two characteristics plus a third one. Describe in your own words this third characteristic.
    A cancer, or malignant neoplasm, is composed of cells that are growing at an uncontrolled rate and that tend to spread or metastasize to other areas of the body.
  11. Using the information and definitions you have just studied, write a paragraph of two to four sentences using correctly the terms cancer, benign tumor, malignant neoplasm, and metastasis.
    ______________________________________
    ______________________________________
    • You could have said something like this: There are two general types of tumors, benign tumors and malignant tumors. Cancer is a type of malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm.
    • The difference between benign tumors and malignant tumors is that malignant tumors
    • metastasize or spread to other areas of the body and benign tumors do not. It is often the spread of the cancer to vital organs that kills the patient.
  12. What is the definition for "remission"?
    A diminution or abatement of the symptoms of a disease.
  13. What is the definition for "continuum"?
    An uninterrupted, ordered sequence of events continuing over a period of time.
  14. What is the definition for "diagnosis"?
    The determination of the nature of a disease.
  15. What is the definition for "ulcerated"?
    Broken skin or mucous membrane characterized by loss of surface tissue on an inflammatory base.
  16. Because the disease of cancer is an ongoing process or an ordered sequence of biological events continuing throughout the lifetime of the patient, it must be viewed as a biological (Fill In)
    _____________________________________.
    continuum.
  17. Periodic follow-up examination of the cancer patient is an essential component of his/her
    (Fill In)
    ____________________________________
    • cancer management. It is important to remember that management of a cancer patient does not end with treatment. At periodic intervals throughout the patient's life, the patient should be examined so that any recurrences of the original cancer or growth of new types of cancer (second primaries) may be discovered. The quality of survival (the capacity of assuming the activities of normal life) is of great importance in planning treatment.
    • Physicians want not only to keep the patient alive but to allow for the most normal life after therapy.
  18. Which of the activities described below might be involved in making a diagnosis?
    [ ] a. Forecasting the probable outcome of the disease.
    [ ] b. Providing special care to combat the disease.
    [ ] c. Distinguishing one disease from another.
    • c--Distinguishing one disease from another. This is but one aspect of the total process of diagnosis. Some diseases have similar symptoms, especially during early stages. Therefore, it is necessary to identify a patient's particular disease. This is often termed "differential diagnosis".
    • a is a description of the prognosis1 and
    • b is a statement of treatment.
  19. In this course you will spend considerable time learning how to abstract medical chart information concerned with the physician's identification of the patient's disease. This identification would be called the _________
    • diagnosis. The identification or the labeling of a diseased condition is part of the process
    • of diagnosis.
  20. The term treatment is sometimes defined as the management and careof a patient for the purpose of controlling disease or its symptoms. The term therapy is often used as a synonym for the term treatment. (Check the appropriate answer to the following.)
    a. After a series of tests was performed on a sample of tissue removed while the patient wasunder anesthesia, the patient was diagnosed as having cancer.
    Would you say this patientreceived treatment?
    YES[ ]
    NO[ ]
    UNCERTAIN[ ]
    a. No. A biopsy (removal of a sample of live tissue for microscopic examination) is adiagnostic technique--an aid in identifying the disease, not in treating it. Removal ofa portion of a tumor for diagnosis is called an incisional biopsy.
  21. What is the definition for "prognosis"?
    • A forecast as to the probable result of an attack of a disease; the prospect as to
    • recovery from a disease as indicated by the nature and symptoms of the case.
  22. The term treatment is sometimes defined as the management and careof a patient for the purpose of controlling disease or its symptoms. The term therapy is often used as a synonym for the term treatment. (Check the appropriate answer to the following.)
    b. The patient was admitted to the hospital complaining of weight loss, a persistent cough,and shortness of breath. He was diagnosed as having cancer of the lung and was referredto a radiologist for radiation therapy.
    Would you say this patient received treatment?
    YES [ ]
    NO [ ]
    UNCERTAIN [ ]
    b. Uncertain. A form of treatment was prescribed, but the statement contains no evidencethat the treatment actually was administered. Presumably it was. However, when abstracting a medical chart, you must be careful to distinguish between a prescriptionand a statement of treatment. Don't assume that a person has been treated unless itsays so on the medical chart.
  23. The term treatment is sometimes defined as the management and careof a patient for the purpose of controlling disease or its symptoms. The term therapy is often used as a synonym for the term treatment. (Check the appropriate answer to the following.)
    c. The patient was admitted to the emergency room because of bleeding from a small ulcerof the skin of the face. The emergency room surgeon recommended total excision of thelesion to which the patient agreed. The resulting specimen was sent to pathology anddiagnosed as a basal cell carcinoma. Did this patient receive treatment?
    YES [ ]
    NO [ ]
    UNCERTAIN [ ]
    c. Yes. Removal of an entire small tumor, for whatever purpose, is called an excisional biopsy. This biopsy, in contrast to the example in a above, is therapy because it is atotal excision.
  24. Choose the statement below that best describes the term remission:
    [ ] a. The patient is asymptomatic1 but continues on chemotherapy.
    [ ] b. The malignant neoplasm was removed by surgery and the patient is receiving radiation therapy every week.
    [ ] c. Surgery for stomach cancer revealed that the malignancy had spread to the liver.Therefore, chemotherapy was initiated following surgery.
    a. Remission means free of symptoms but not necessarily free of disease. Because of the possibility of residual tumor, the patient continues to receive chemotherapy.
  25. After the patient is entered into the registry files, follow-up procedures* are initiated. You have already learned some of the reasons for patient follow-up.
    List at least two of them.
    a.__________________________________
    b.__________________________________
    • Some of the things you might have listed are:
    • 1. To insure the early detection of any recurrence of the malignancy.
    • 2. To insure the early detection of the occurrence of any type of malignancy
    • (a second primary site).
    • 3. To obtain information needed to assess the results of various types of treatment.
    • 4. To obtain "end results" information, such as:
    • a. How long the patient has lived.
    • b. How well the patient has lived or "quality of survival".
    • c. Whether the patient has expired and whether death was due to the cancer.
    • 5. To maintain continuity of patient care (cancer management).
  26. What is the definition for "asymptomatic"?
    Asymptomatic means: showing or causing no symptoms.
  27. What is the definition for "incision"?
    An incision is a cut; a wound produced by cutting.
  28. What is the definition for "excision"?
    An excision is an act of cutting away or taking out.
  29. Which patient(s) in the list below will never have a recurrence of cancer?
    a. A person who has just been treated for colon cancer.
    b. A person who was treated for colon cancer three years ago.
    c. A person who was treated for colon cancer seven years ago.
    d. All of the above persons have the same probability of recurrence.
    e. None of the above persons can be absolutely certain of never having a recurrence.
    e. None of these persons can be absolutely certain of never having a recurrence. However, the longer the patient has lived without a recurrence, the greater the probability that there will be no recurrence.
  30. Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy1, and immunotherapy2 can be used together or separately tocontrol, modify, or eliminate the growth of cancer. When used in this fashion, they are forms of treatment. Some surgical procedures, however, are diagnostic in that their purpose is to aid in the identification of the disease. Choose from the following the procedure that is a form of treatment:
    [ ] a. A surgical incision3 into the abdomen (laparotomy) to visually inspect a suspected malignancy.
    [ ] b. The excision4 of part of the lung plus chemotherapy to control the spread of lung cancer.
    [ ] c. A surgical biopsy and/or x-ray to diagnose a bone tumor.
    b. The use of surgery to remove the primary lesion (tumor) supplemented by chemotherapy to control possible metastasis. (The location and spread of the cancer are two factors the physician considers before determining the best method of treatment.)
  31. Which of the following types of information might be considered end results information?
    [ ] a. The number of cancer cases diagnosed during the past year, arranged by anatomical site, by stage of disease, and by age of patient.
    [ ] b. The cost and length of time required to diagnose various types of cancer.
    [ ] c. The number of people surviving five years after treatment for various types of cancer.
    [ ] d. The number of former cancer patients who have been followed during the past year who were free of disease.
    Answer:

    • c and d are forms of end results information.
    • a is a frequency distribution of cancer cases, and b is a cost analysis in terms of actual costs and time.
  32. What is the definition of "diagnosis of cancer"?
    An attempt to identify accurately the anatomical site of origin of the malignancy and the type of cells involved.
  33. What does the term "histololgy" refers to?
    The term histology refers to the type of cells involved.
  34. What is the definition of "histology"?
    Histology is the science of tissues which deals with minute structures, composition, and function of the tissues.
  35. Cancer begins by involving only a small number of cells within the primary site. As these cells multiply (seemingly unrestricted), they involve a wider area within the organ or tissue of origin. The
    resultant mass or tumor compresses, invades, and destroys adjacent normal tissues.
    (a) This is spread by direct extension to organs to the primary site.
    (b) Any contiguous1 growth into neighboring tissues or organs is called involvement by
    (a) adjacent.

    (b) direct extension.
  36. What does "contiguous" mean?
    Contiguous means in contact, adjacent; for example, cancer of the stomach with uninterrupted spread to the esophagus.
  37. What does "non-contiguous" mean?
    Non-contiguous means not in contact or not adjacent; for example, breast cancer that has metastasized to the brain.
  38. What does "extent of disease" mean?
    Extent of disease is a detailed description of how far the disease has spread from the primary site.
  39. What does "stage of disease" mean?
    Stage of disease means grouping cases with similar prognoses into broad extent-of-disease categories, localized, regional, and distant spread.
  40. Can you think of some of the information that you might look for in a medical chart in order to determine the extent of disease?
  41. You might have said:
    • 1. Organs or tissues involved by direct extension
    • 2. Distant site involvement via the blood stream or lymphatic system
    • 3. Regional or distant lymph node involvement
    • 4. Metastasis by seeding or implantation of cancer cells
  42. Sometimes the name given to a malignant tumor will also describe the type of cells involved. For example, a cancer that arises in glandular tissue might be called: (Use your dictionary if you need
    assistance.)
    [ ] a. Myeloma
    [ ] b. Adenocarcinoma
    [ ] c. Epithelioma
  43. b. Adenocarcinoma. Cancers often are named for the type of cells involved. Later on you
    will learn more about the various types of body cells.
  44. Malignant tumors are divided into two main classes:
    carcinomas and sarcomas
  45. What type of cell is carcinoma composed of?
    type of cell - carcinoma - epithelial cell

    • Epithelial cell are:
    •     *skin
    •     *lines the walls of hollow organs
    •     *and derivatives

    Epithelial cells are limited to the covering of internal and external surfaces of the body
  46. What is sarcoma tumors composed of?
    The sarcoma class of tumors includes all other malignancies.
  47. What is the best way to distinguish between carcinomas and sarcomas?

    REMEMBER that....
    Remember that if epithelial cells are not the site of origin, the tumor is almost certain to be a sarcoma.
  48. "SARCO" means...
    SARCO means flesh
  49. Flesh is composed of two things:
    Flesh (sarco) is composed of...

    Muscle and Fatty tissue with blood vessels, nerves, and tendons, connect the organs of the body.
  50. What part of the body constitutes the skeletal system?
    The bones along with their blood and nerve supply, also connect the various portions of the body.
  51. The term sarcoma is defined as a...?
    As a malignant connective tissue tumor since it encompasses
  52. Which of the following malignancies would most likely be classified as sarcomas?

    [ ] a. Cancer of the colon.
    [ ] b. Malignancy arising in muscle.
    [ ] c. Cancer of the skin of the lip.
    [ ] d. Gallbladder malignancy.
    [ ] e. Malignant bone tumor.
    • Answer
    • b. muscle and
    • e. bone
  53. Which of the following types of malignant neoplasms would be example(s) of sarcoma?
    [ ] a. A malignant tumor arising in fibrous tissue.
    [ ] b. A malignant tumor arising in cartilage.
    [ ] c. A malignant tumor composed of fatty tissue.
    [ ] d. A malignant tumor arising in lymph nodes.
    Answer

    • All are examples of sarcomas.
    • a. Fibrosarcomas (tumors arising in the fibrous connective tissue, such as, tendons,
    • ligaments, and fibrous membranes)
    • b. Chondrosarcomas (tumors of the cartilage)
    • c. Liposarcomas (tumors of fatty tissue)
    • d. Lymphosarcomas (tumors of lymph nodes and lymphoid tissue)
  54. a. Cancers arising from epithelial cells are classified as _______________________ .

    b. Cancers arising from connective tissue are classified as _______________________ .
    Answer

    a. carcinomas

    b. sarcomas
  55. What is the meaning of cell differentiation?
    Answer

    Cells of the embryo continue to divide, they begin to change their shape and structure.
  56. Cells become arranged into distinct layers called __________

    Name the (3) three layers:
    • Answer
    • Germ layers

    • 3 Layers
    •     *Ectoderm
    •     *Mesoderm
    •     *Endoderm
  57. What is the study of the origin and development of the individual organisms?
    • Answer
    •     Embryology (em·bree·ol·o·gy)
  58. Write a sentence that defines the term "tissue."
    A tissue is a group of similar cells collected together by an intercellular matrix.
  59. The study of tissues is called ______________
    Histology
  60. List the four (4) types of tissues found in the body.
    • 1. epithelial tissue
    • 2. connective tissue 
    • 3. muscle tissue
    • 4. nerve tissue
  61. Complete the description of epithelial tissue w/ fill in the blanks.
    Epithelial tissues consist of ____ cells with ____ intercellular matrix. They have ____ surface, have no ___ supply, and ___ quickly. These tissues ___ the body, ___ body cavities, and ___ the organs within the body cavities. The cells may be ___, ___, or ___ in shape.
    Epithelial tissues consist of closely packed cells with very little intercellular matrix. They have one free surface, have no blood (vascular) supply, and reproduce quickly. These tissues cover the body, line body cavities, and cover the organs within the body cavities. The cells may be flat (squamous), cuboidal, or columnar in shape.
  62. Name the type of epithelial tissue and it's location?

    Simple cuboidal epithelium b/c of its single layer of cells shaped like a cube.

    • Locations:
    • 1. Kidney tubules where it functions in absorption.
    • 2. Glandular tissue where it functions in secretion.
  63. Name the type of epithelial tissue and it's location?

    • Stratified squamous epithelium b/c it consists of several layers of cells, ones at the surface are flat, squamous cells; protection is the primary function b/c it is thicker than other epithelia.
    • Locations:
    • 1. skin
    • 2. linings of the mouth, anus, and vagina.
  64. Name the type of epithelial tissue and it's location?

    • Pseudostratified columnar epithelium appears to be stratified but is NOT; all cells are attached to the basement membrane, but not all reach the surface; cilia and goblet cells are associated with this tissue.
    • Locations:
    • 1. lines portions of the respiratory tract
    • 2. some of the tubes of the reporductive tract.
  65. Name 4 of the body tissues derived from the middle primary germ layer known as the mesoderm.
    • 1. Muscles
    • 2. Fibrous tissue
    • 3. Bone and cartilage
    • 4. Fat or adipose tissue
    • 5. Blood and lymph vessels
    • 6. Blood cells
  66. The coelomic cavity divides into three cavities. Name the three body cavities.

    The linings of these cavities are composed of a ___________ layer of cells called _____________.

    (Hint: the 3 p's)
    • 1. pleural cavity,
    • 2. pericardial cavity, and
    • 3. peritoneal cavity.

    Single layer of cells called mesothelium.
  67. Name some of the epithelial cells of the the mesoderm origin:

    Hint: V.E.M.
    • Mesodermal origin
    •   Endometrium of the uterus
    •   Vaginal epithelium
    •   Mucosa of the bladder
  68. Germ layers:

    Carcinomas begin in _________ tissue which is derived from the _________  and ________.

    Hint: 3 e's
    • Epithelial tissue
    • Ectoderm and Endoderm
  69. True or False
    Sarcomas can arise in tissue that has been derived from either the ectoderm or the mesoderm.
    False
  70. Germ layer:

    True or False

    Assuming that a structure of the body contains both an epithelial lining and supporting or connective tissue, either a sarcoma or carcinoma could arise in that structure.
  71. True.
    • If both epithelial and connective tissues comprise a body structure, a carcinoma
    • could begin in the epithelium and/or a sarcoma could start in the connective tissue.
  72. Name the GERM LAYER and the TUMOR TYPE.

    Epthelial tissue
    Germ layer: Ectoderm and Endoderm

    Tumor type: Carcinoma
  73. Name the GERM LAYER and the TUMOR TYPE.

    Fibrous connective tissue
    Germ layer: Mesoderm

    Tumor type: Sarcoma
  74. Name the GERM LAYER and the TUMOR TYPE.

    Muscular tissue
    Germ layer: Mesoderm

    Tumor type: Sarcoma
  75. Name the GERM LAYER and the TUMOR TYPE.

    Vascular tissue
    Germ layer: Mesoderm

    Tumor type: Sarcoma
  76. Name the GERM LAYER and the TUMOR TYPE.

    Nerve tissue
    Germ layer: Ectoderm

    Tumor type: Carcinoma
  77. Name the 2 cell types of epithelial tissue.
    • Squamous epithelial tissues - flat and scale-like: found in the mouth, esophagus, and surface of the skin.
    • Columnar epithelial tissues - lines the stomach and intestines forming glandular epithelium.
  78. Simple vs Stratified
    Simple = 1 layer of cells

    Stratified = 2 or more layer of cells
  79. What is the most widespread and abundant tissue in the body?
    Connective tissue
  80. What does the connective tissue do?
    The connective tissue connects and supports all body structures.
  81. Identify the different kinds of connective tissue.
    • adipose or fat
    • tissue:
    • dense fibrous tissue (ligaments/tendons)
    • bone and cartilage

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