BioE 220 Chapter 3

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abbeymac
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198008
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BioE 220 Chapter 3
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2013-02-04 23:33:46
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Bio Engineering Biomolecular principals
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Chapter 3 vocabulary and concepts
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  1. Adenovirus:
    a group of DNA-containing viruses that cause respiratory disease,including one form of the  common cold. Adenoviruses can also be genetically modified and used in gene therapy  to treat cystic fibrosis, cancer, and potentially other diseases.
  2. Allele:
    One of two or more alternative forms of a gene located at the corresponding site (locus) on homologous chromosomes. Different alleles produce variation in inherited characteristics such as hair color  or blood type. In an individual, one form of  the allele (the dominant one) may be  expressed more than another form  (the recessive one).
  3. Anneal:
    Similar to hybridize, to bring complementary strands of nucleic acids together
  4. antibiotic selection:
    A method used to ascertain whether a particular plasmid has been successfully integrated into the DNA sequence of a bacterial cell
  5. Antiparallel
    Arranged in an opposite but parallel manner
  6. Antisense RNA
    RNA, with sequence complementary to a specific RNA transcript or mRNA, the binding of which prevents processing of the transcript of translation of the mRNA
  7. Bioinformatics
    The science of managing and analyzing biological data using advanced computing techniques. Especially important in analyzing genomic research data. 
  8. Bioremediation
    The use of biological organisms such as plants or microbes to aid in removing hazardous substances from an area
  9. Camptothecin
    A chemotherapeutic agent that can inhibit protein synthesis by inhibiting the action of topoisomerase
  10. Carcinogen
    A substance capable of causing cancer in living tissues
  11. Character
    A feature that is transmissible from parent to offspring
  12. Cromatin
    • The self-replicating genetic structure of cells containing the cellular DNA that bears in its nucleotide sequence the linear array of genes. 
    • Prokryotes: chromosomal DNA is circular, and entire genome is carried o one chromosome. 
    • Eukaryotic Genomes consist of a number of chromosomes whose DNA is associated with different kinds of proteins
  13. Clone
    To create an exact copy made of biological material such as a DNA segment, a whole cell, or a complete organism 
  14. Cloning vector
    DNA molecule originating from a virus, a plasmid, or the cell of a higher organism into which another DNA fragment of appropriate size can be integrated without loss of the vector's capacity for self-replication; vectors introduce foreign DNA into host cells, where the DNA can be reproduced in large quantities. 
  15. Codon
    Sequence of three nucleotides in DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid during protein synthesis; also called triplet. 64 possible codons, 3 of which are stops, which do not specify amino acids
  16. Complementary DNA (cDNA)
    DNa that is synthesized in the laboratory from a messenger RNA (mRNA) template
  17. Daughter cells
    Two cells resulting from division of a single parental cell
  18. Denaturation
    Alternation in the conformation of a protein or nucleic acid caused by disruption of various non-covalent bonds caused by heating or exposure to certain chemicals; usually results in loss of biological function
  19. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    Long linear polymer, composed of four kinds of deoxyribose nucleotides, that is the carrier of genetic information. In its native state, DNA is a double helix of two antiparallel strands held together by hydrogen bonds between complementary purine and pyrimidine bases.
  20. Diploid
    A full set of genetic material consisting of paired chromosomes, one form each parental set. Most animal cells except the gametes have a diploid set of chromosomes. Human genome has 46 chromosomes.
  21. DNA binding proteins
    Protein molecules that help to stabilize the single-stranded DNA during DNA replication
  22. DNA ligase
    an enzyme that links together the 3' end of one DNA strand with the 5' end of another forming a continuous strand
  23. Dominant
    An allele that is almost always expressed, even if only one copy is present
  24. Encode
    In general use, to put into code; in genetics, to specify the genetic code for
  25. Exon
    The protein-coding DNA sequence of a gene
  26. Expression vector
    A modified plasmid or virus that carries a gene or cDNA into a suitable host cell and there directs synthesis of the encoded protein. Some expression vectors are designed for screening DNA libraries for a gene of interest  others, for producing large amounts of a protein from its cloned gene.
  27. Gamete
    Mature male or female reproductive cell with a haploid set of chromosomes (23)
  28. Gene
    The fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity. A gene is an ordered sequence of nucleotides located in a particular position on a particular chromosome that encodes a specific functional product
  29. Genetic code
    The nucleotide triplets of DNA and RNA molecules, which carry genetic information in living tissue
  30. Genetic expression
    The entire sequence that occurs in converting a DNA sequence into a protein
  31. Genetically modified organsim
    Plant or animal that has been modified using recombinant DNA technology
  32. Genetics
    The study of inheritance patterns of specific traits
  33. Genome
    A complete set of genes or genetic material present in an organism's chromosomes
  34. Genotype
    Entire genetic constitution of an individual cell or organsim
  35. Germ cells
    • Sperm and egg cells and their precursors.
    • Haploid-- only one set of chromosomes (23)
  36. Glycosylation
    The addition of carbohydrates to proteins
  37. Haploid
    A single set of chromosome present in the egg and sperm cells of animals. (23 chromosomes)
  38. Helicase
    An enzyme that moves along a DNA duplex using the energy released by ATP hydrolysis to separate (unwind)the two strands; required for the replication and transcription of DNA
  39. Heredity
    The genetic transmission of characteristics from parent to offspring
  40. Heterozygous
    Referring to a diploid cell or organism having two different alleles or a particular gene
  41. Histone
    A group of proteins packaged with DNA to form chromatin that plays a role in gene regulation
  42. Homologous
    Corresponding or similar in structure (or function)
  43. Incomplete Dominance
    A phemomenon whereby the presence of multiple alleles in a heterozygote leads to a trait that appears intermediate to the homozygous phenotypes
  44. Intron 
    DNA sequence that interrupts the protein-coding sequence of a gene; an intron is transcribed into RNA but is cut out of the message before it is translated into protein
  45. Karyotype
    A photomicrograph of an individuals chromosomes arranged in a standard format showing the number, size, and shape of each chromosome type
  46. Knockout
    Inactivation of specific genes. 

    Often created in labs so they can study the knockout organism as a model for a particular disease
  47. Lagging strand
    The DNA template of a double stranded DNA molecule opposite the leading strand that codes in the direction 5' to 3'
  48. Leading strand
    The DNA template of a double-stranded DNA molecule opposite the lagging strand that codes in the direction 3' to 5'
  49. Liposome
    Spherical phospholipid bilayer structure with an aqueous interior that forms in vitro from phospholipids and may contain protein
  50. Locus
    The specific site of a gene on a chromosome. All the alleles of a particular gene occupy the same locus
  51. Meiosis
    The process of two consecutive cell divisions in the diploid progenitors of sex cells. Meiosis results in four rather than two daughter cells, each with a haploid set of chromosomes
  52. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
    RNA that serves as a template for protein synthesis 
  53. Mitosis
    The process of nuclear division in cells that produces daughter cells that are genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell
  54. Mutagenesis
    Development of a mutation (change in DNA base)
  55. Mutant
    Individual, organism, or new genetic character arising or resulting from mutation
  56. Mutation
    Alteration or change in DNA base(s)
  57. N-myristoylation
    The addition of fatty acids to proteins
  58. Nucleic acid hybridization
    The process of joining two complementary strands of DNA or one each of DNA and RNA to from a double-stranded molecule 
  59. Nulliploid
    Devoid of a nucleus or nuclei
  60. Okazaki fragments
    Short DNA fragments that are joined to form the lagging strand of DNA
  61. Oligonucleotide
    A molecule usually composed of 25 or fewer nucleotides; used as a DNA synthesis primer
  62. Phenotype
    The physical characteristics of an organism or the presence of a disease that may or may not be genetic
  63. Phosphodiester bond
    A bond between the 5'-phosphate of one nucleotide and the 3'-hydroxyl of another
  64. Plasmid
    • Autonomoulsy replication extrachromosomal circular DNA molecule, distinct from the normal bacterial genome and nonessential for cell survival under nonselective conditions. 
    • Some can integrate into the host genome
    • Artificially constructed plasmids are used as Cloning vectors
  65. Pleitropy
    One gene that causes many different physical traits such as multiple disease symptoms
  66. Polygenic
    Determined by more than one gene
  67. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
    A method for amplifying a region of DNA by repeated cycles of DNA synthesis in virto
  68. Polyploid
    Having multiple chromosome sets as a result of a genetic event that is abnormal, or programmed
  69. Post-transnational modification
    Chemical change in the polypeptide chain after translation
  70. Prenylation
    The addition of lipids to proteins
  71. Primer
    Short preexisting polynucleotide chain to which new deoxyribonucleotides can be added by DNA polymerase
  72. Promoter
    A DNA site to which RNA polymerase will bind and initiate transcriptoin
  73. Proteolysis
    The directed degradation of proteins or peptides by the actions of enzymes
  74. Recessive gene
    A gene that will be expressed only if there are two identical copies or, for a male, if one copy is present on the X chromosome
  75. Recombinant DNA technology
    • Joins together DNA segments in a cell-free system. 
    • recombinant DNA can enter a cell and replicate there, either autonomously or after is has become integrated into a cellular chromosome
  76. Renaturation
    The process by which proteins or complementary strands of nucleic acids re-form their native conformations
  77. Replication fork
    A structure that forms when two parental DNA strands separate
  78. Replication origin
    A site for the initiation of DNA replication
  79. Restriction endonuclease
    An enzyme that cleaves DNA at a specific sequence
  80. Retrovirus
    • A type of virus that contains RNA as its genetic material. 
    • RNA translates into DNA and inserts itself into an infected cells DNA. 
    • Causes many diseases, including cancers and AIDS
  81. Reverse transcriptase
    An enzyme used by retroviruses to form a complementary DNA (cDNA) sequence from their RNA. The resulting DNA is then inserted into the chromosome of the host cell
  82. Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
    RNA delivers DNA's genetic message to the cytoplasm of a cell where proteins are made
  83. Ribosome
    A small molecule containing RNA and associated proteins, present within the cytoplasm of living cells, that is involved in protein synthesis by binding to mRNA and tRNA
  84. Robosomal RNA
    • A multicompnent system of RNA synthesized in the nucleolus of cells.
    • Constitutes the central component of ribosomes
  85. RNA interference (RNAi)
    Short RNA sequences that are complementary to mRNA sequences and may interfere with translation
  86. RNA polymerase
    An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of RNA
  87. RNA Primase
    An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis for RNA
  88. Semiconservative
    Describes a from of replication whereby the newly formed DNA in the daughter cell is made up of an original parental strand and one newly synthesized
  89. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
    DNA sequence variations that occur when a single nucleotide (A, T, C or G) in the genome sequence is altered
  90. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)
    A class of 20-to 25-nucleotide-long RNA molecules that play a number of roles in biology including RNA interference
  91. Somatic cell
    any cell in the body except gametes and their precursors
  92. Southern blotting
    Transfer by absorption of DNA fragments separated in electrophoretic gels to membrane filter for detection of specific base sequences by radiolabeled complementary probes
  93. Splice
    The process of removing introns in an RNA transcript
  94. Structural gene
    any gene that codes for the amino acid sequences in a protein except the regulatory protein
  95. Systems bioloby
    The study of interactions between the components of a biological system and how these interactions give rise to the function and behavior of that system
  96. Termination codon
    Any of three mRNa sequences (UGA, UAG, UAA) that do not code for an amino acid and therefore signal the ed of protein synthesis
  97. Toposiomerase
    An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible breakage and rejoining of DNA strands
  98. Trait
    A variation of a charachter
  99. Transcription
    The synthesis of an RNA copy from a sequence of DNA; 1st step in gene expression
  100. Transcription factor
    A protein that binds to regulatory regions and helps control gene expression
  101. Transduction
    The introduction of genetic materials into cells using viral methods
  102. Transfection
    The introduction of genetic material into eukaryotic cells
  103. Transfer RNA (tRNA)
    • A class of RNA having structure with triplet nucleotide sequences that are complementary to the triplet nucleotide coding  sequences of mRNA. 
    • Bonds with a.a. and transfer them to the ribosomes, where proteins are assembled according to the genetic code carried by mRNA
  104. Transform
    (bacteria) the genetic alteration of a cell caused by the uptake and expression of foreign DNA
  105. Transgenic
    Being an organism the genome of which has been altered by the transfer of a gene or genes from another  species  or breed
  106. Translation
    The process in which the genetic code by mRNA directs the synthesis of proteins form amino acids

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