BMSC 230 Glycolysis

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jaz584
ID:
198031
Filename:
BMSC 230 Glycolysis
Updated:
2013-02-05 20:34:43
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Glycolysis
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BMSC 230
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  1. First Reaction
    • -start with glucose
    • -phosphorylation reaction
    • -C6 becomes phosphorylated 
    • -only occurs in forward direction
    • -hexokinase 1 is enzyme(can phosphorylate and hexose sugar, is inhibited by product G6P....km of .1milimolar)
    • -produces glucose-6-phosphate 
    • -can also be catalyzed by glucokinase (km of 5-10 milimolar) not inhibited by product this way and only occurs in liver, does not occur in diabetics
  2. Second Reaction
    • -start with G6P
    • -conversion of aldose(double bonded O on C1)-->ketose sugar(double bonded O on C2)
    • -can occur in reverse direction, but specific to G6P and Fructose 6 Phosphate
    • -phosphohexose isomerase enzyme
    • -product is Fructose 6 Phosphate F6P
  3. Third Reaction
    • -start with F6P
    • -enzyme phosphofructokinase 1
    • -energy requiring
    • -simple addition of phosphate group to C1
    • -only occurs in forward direction
    • -only occurs when cell needs energy (gatekeeper reaction)
    • -product Fructose 1,6 Bisphosphate (bis-means has two phosphates, but not connected di-means has two phosphates attached to each other)
  4. Reaction Four
    • -start with Fructose 1,6 Bisphosphate
    • -conversion of 6C sugar into two 3C sugars
    • -enzyme aldolase
    • -reversible reaction
    • -products Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate (aldose sugar) and Dihydroxyacetone phosphate(ketose sugar, starting point for synthesis of glycerol backbone for lipids)
  5. Reaction Five
    • -start Dihydroxyacetone phosphate
    • -reversible reaction
    • -conversion of ketose to aldose sugar
    • -enzyme triose phosphate isomerase 
    • -product Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate 
  6. Reaction 6
    • -start Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate 
    • -oxidation and then phosphorylation with NAD+ being reduced to NADH+ and H+ using inorganic phosphate as energy (each NADH+ is worth 2.5 ATP so nets 5 ATP equivalent from reaction)
    • -enzyme is glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 
    • -produces 1,3 bisphosphoglycerate 
  7. Reaction Seven
    • -start with 1,3 bisphosphoglycerate (high energy molecule, but very unstable)
    • -transfers phosphate group to ADP, forming ATP 
    • -enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase
    • -reversible reaction
    • -substrate level phosphorylation because ATP is directly created
    • -product 3-phosphoglycerate 
  8. Reaction Eight
    • -start 3-phosphoglycerate 
    • -transfer of phosphate from C3 to C2
    • -reversible reaction
    • -enzyme phosphoglycerate mutase(all enzymes that move a group to different location on same molecule are known as mutases)
    • -product 2-phosphoglycerate
  9. Reaction Nine
    • -start 2-phosphoglycerate
    • -dehydration reaction
    • -enzyme enolase(inhibited by floride)
    • -reversible reaction
    • -product phosphoenolpyruvate 
  10. Reaction Ten
    • -start phosphoenolpyruvate
    • -produces 2 ATP (substrate level phosphorylation)
    • -enzyme pyruvate kinase
    • -only goes in forward reaction
    • -product Pyruvate 
  11. Seven Types of Reactions
    • -phosphoryl transfer-->kinases (reaction 1,3,7 &10)
    • -phosphoryl shift-->mutase (reaction 8)
    • -isomerization-->isomerases (interconversion between aldose and ketose sugar, reactions 2 &5)
    • -dehydration-->enolase (reaction 9)
    • -aldol cleavage-->aldolase (reaction 4)
    • -dehydrogenation-->dehydrogenase (reaction 6)
  12. Stage One of Glycolysis 
    • -5 steps
    • -energy requiring (2 ATP per glucose molecule)
    • -conversion of 6C glucose into two 3C glyceraldehyde 
  13. Stage Two of Glycolysis
    • -5 steps
    • -energy yielding 
    • -4 ATP/glucose directly (substrate level phosphorylation)
    • -5 ATP equivalents from reoxidation of 2 NAD+
    • -net yield for stage one and stage two is 7 ATP equivalents
    • -6C glucose molecule 
    • -starting point for glycolytic pathway
    • -fructose 6 phosphate
    • -product of reaction 2 and starting point of reaction 3
    • -fructose 1,6 bisphosphate gets another phosphate group off of C1
  14. Hexokinase 1
    • -enzyme for reaction one
    • -phosphorylates hexose sugar 
    • -turns glucose into glucose 6 phosphate
    • -only occurs in forward direction
  15. Phosphofructokinase 1
    • -enzyme for reaction 3
    • -turns fructose 6 phosphate into fructose 1,6 bisphosphate
    • -only goes forward
    • -gatekeeper reaction
  16. glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 
    • -enzyme for reaction 6
    • -oxidates and then phosphorylates, turns glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate into 1,3 bisphosphoglycerate 

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