Bmsc 230 Gluconeogenesis

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  1. Gluconeogenesis
    • -Synthesis of Glucose from non-hexose precursors
    • -Occurs in all animals plants fungi and micro-organisms
  2. Where does gluconeogenesis occur
    • 95% in liver
    • some in kidney
    • (Glucose-6-phosphatase only exists in liver and kidney)
  3. What precursors do animals use for gluconeogenesis?
    Lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, and amino acids
  4. What precursors do plants use for glyconeogenesis?
    stored fats, proteins Image Upload sucrose
  5. What precursors do micro-organisms use for glyconeogenesis?
    simple organic compounds: acetate, lactate, propionate Image Upload Glucose
  6. What are the 3 bypass reactions in gluconeogenesis that differ from glycolosis?
    • 1) Pyruvate Image Upload oxaloacetate
    • oxaloacetate Image Upload phosphoenolpyruvate

    2) fructose 1,6-phosphate Image Upload fructose 6-phosphate

    3) Glucose 6-PhosphateImage UploadGlucose
  7. Pyruvate to oxaloacetate
    • Pyruvate+CO2+ATPImage UploadADP+Pi+Oxaloacetate
    • Enz: Pyruvate Carboxylase with Bioitin Prosthesis
    • Irreversable
    • Image Upload
  8. Biotin (B7)
    a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes, involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, isoleucine, and valine, and in gluconeogenesis.
  9. Oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate
    • Oxaloaceetate+GTPImage UploadCO2+GDP+phosphoenolpyruvate
    • Enz: PEP carboxykinase
    • **Oxaloacetate is essentially just phosphoralized
    • Image Upload
  10. If Oxaloaceetate Image Upload phosphoenolpyruvate reaction occurs outside of mitochondria what what must occur?
    • Oxaloacetate+NADHImage UploadNAD++Malate
    • (to transport out of mitochondria)
    • Enz: Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase

    • Malate+NAD+Image UploadNADH+Oxaloacetate
    • (to proceed with reaction)
    • Enz: cytosolic Malate Dehydrogenase

    **Oxaloacetate can not be transported out of mitochondria
  11. Fructose 1,6-phosphateImage Upload Fructose 6-phosphate
    • Fructose 1,6-phosphate+H2OImage Upload
    • Pi+Fructose 6-phosphate
    • Enz: Fructose 1,6-biphosphatase(FBPase-1)
    • irreversable
  12. Glucose-6-phosphateImage UploadGlucose
    • Glucose-6-phosphate+H2Image Upload Glucose+Pi
    • Enz: Glucose 6-phosphatase
    • irreversable
  13. At what reactions are the 11 ATP equivalences required?
    • 1)2 ATP Pyruvate-oxaloacetate
    • 2)2 GTP Oxaloacetate-PEP
    • 3)2 ATP 3-phosphoglycerate-1,3bisphosphoglycerate
    • 4) 2 NADH 1,3phosphoglycerate-Glyceraldehyde 3-P
Card Set:
Bmsc 230 Gluconeogenesis
2013-02-07 01:37:08
Bmsc 230 Gluconeogenesis

Bmsc 230 Gluconeogenesis
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