Bmsc 230 Gluconeogenesis

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Scottygo
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198032
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Bmsc 230 Gluconeogenesis
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2013-02-06 20:37:08
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Bmsc 230 Gluconeogenesis
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Bmsc 230 Gluconeogenesis
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  1. Gluconeogenesis
    • -Synthesis of Glucose from non-hexose precursors
    • -Occurs in all animals plants fungi and micro-organisms
  2. Where does gluconeogenesis occur
    • 95% in liver
    • some in kidney
    • (Glucose-6-phosphatase only exists in liver and kidney)
  3. What precursors do animals use for gluconeogenesis?
    Lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, and amino acids
  4. What precursors do plants use for glyconeogenesis?
    stored fats, proteins  sucrose
  5. What precursors do micro-organisms use for glyconeogenesis?
    simple organic compounds: acetate, lactate, propionate  Glucose
  6. What are the 3 bypass reactions in gluconeogenesis that differ from glycolosis?
    • 1) Pyruvate  oxaloacetate
    • oxaloacetate  phosphoenolpyruvate

    2) fructose 1,6-phosphate  fructose 6-phosphate

    3) Glucose 6-PhosphateGlucose
  7. Pyruvate to oxaloacetate
    • Pyruvate+CO2+ATPADP+Pi+Oxaloacetate
    • Enz: Pyruvate Carboxylase with Bioitin Prosthesis
    • Irreversable
  8. Biotin (B7)
    a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes, involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, isoleucine, and valine, and in gluconeogenesis.
  9. Oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate
    • Oxaloaceetate+GTPCO2+GDP+phosphoenolpyruvate
    • Enz: PEP carboxykinase
    • **Oxaloacetate is essentially just phosphoralized
  10. If Oxaloaceetate  phosphoenolpyruvate reaction occurs outside of mitochondria what what must occur?
    • Oxaloacetate+NADHNAD++Malate
    • (to transport out of mitochondria)
    • Enz: Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase

    • Malate+NAD+NADH+Oxaloacetate
    • (to proceed with reaction)
    • Enz: cytosolic Malate Dehydrogenase

    **Oxaloacetate can not be transported out of mitochondria
  11. Fructose 1,6-phosphate Fructose 6-phosphate
    • Fructose 1,6-phosphate+H2O
    • Pi+Fructose 6-phosphate
    • Enz: Fructose 1,6-biphosphatase(FBPase-1)
    • irreversable
  12. Glucose-6-phosphateGlucose
    • Glucose-6-phosphate+H2 Glucose+Pi
    • Enz: Glucose 6-phosphatase
    • irreversable
  13. At what reactions are the 11 ATP equivalences required?
    • 1)2 ATP Pyruvate-oxaloacetate
    • 2)2 GTP Oxaloacetate-PEP
    • 3)2 ATP 3-phosphoglycerate-1,3bisphosphoglycerate
    • 4) 2 NADH 1,3phosphoglycerate-Glyceraldehyde 3-P

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