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- -Synthesis of Glucose from non-hexose precursors
- -Occurs in all animals plants fungi and micro-organisms
Where does gluconeogenesis occur
- 95% in liver
- some in kidney
- (Glucose-6-phosphatase only exists in liver and kidney)
What precursors do animals use for gluconeogenesis?
Lactate, pyruvate, glycerol, and amino acids
What precursors do plants use for glyconeogenesis?
stored fats, proteins
What precursors do micro-organisms use for glyconeogenesis?
simple organic compounds: acetate, lactate, propionate
What are the 3 bypass reactions in gluconeogenesis that differ from glycolosis?
- 1) Pyruvate oxaloacetate
- oxaloacetate phosphoenolpyruvate
2) fructose 1,6-phosphate
3) Glucose 6-Phosphate
Pyruvate to oxaloacetate
- Enz: Pyruvate Carboxylase with Bioitin Prosthesis
a coenzyme for carboxylase enzymes, involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, isoleucine, and valine, and in gluconeogenesis.
Oxaloacetate to phosphoenolpyruvate
- Enz: PEP carboxykinase
- **Oxaloacetate is essentially just phosphoralized
phosphoenolpyruvate reaction occurs outside of mitochondria what what must occur?
- (to transport out of mitochondria)
- Enz: Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase
- (to proceed with reaction)
- Enz: cytosolic Malate Dehydrogenase
**Oxaloacetate can not be transported out of mitochondria
- Fructose 1,6-phosphate+H2O
- Pi+Fructose 6-phosphate
- Enz: Fructose 1,6-biphosphatase(FBPase-1)
- Glucose-6-phosphate+H2O Glucose+Pi
- Enz: Glucose 6-phosphatase
At what reactions are the 11 ATP equivalences required?
- 1)2 ATP Pyruvate-oxaloacetate
- 2)2 GTP Oxaloacetate-PEP
- 3)2 ATP 3-phosphoglycerate-1,3bisphosphoglycerate
- 4) 2 NADH 1,3phosphoglycerate-Glyceraldehyde 3-P