Chemistry chapters 8, 9, 10, 11

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Chemistry chapters 8, 9, 10, 11
2013-02-04 23:16:22
chemistry 10 11 test

chapter test
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  1. what are some characteristics of ionic bonding
    • electrons are transferred
    • metals react with nonmetals
    • ions paired have lower energy (greater stability) than separated ions
  2. coulumb's Law

    • E= units in joules
    • r = distance between ion centers in nanometers
    • Q1 and Q2 = numerical ion charges 
  3. what is coulumb's law used for 
    to find the energy of interaction between a pair of ions
  4. describe a covalent bond 
    electrons are shared by a nuclei 
  5. what is a pure covalent bond 
    • also called non polar covalent
    • when electrons are shared evenly 
  6. what are polar covalent bonds 
    when electrons are shared unequally 
  7. the electronegitivity of an element generally increases ________
     across a period from left to right 
  8. the electronegativity decreases _______
    down a group
  9. anions are ____ than parent atom
    larger because they are more negative with more electrons
  10. cations are _____ than parent atom 
    smaller because they are more positive with less electrons 
  11. atomic radii increases as you go ___ a group and from ____ to ____ on a period 
    down; right to left 
  12. what is lattice energy
    the change in energy that takes p;ace when separated gaseous ions are packed  together to form an ionic solid 

    M+  (g) + X(g) --> MX (s)

    the energy change is exothermic (negative) 
  13. what is the Lattice Energy equation? 
    • k = constant dependent on the solid structure and electron configuration 
    • Q1 and Q2 are charges of the ions 
    • r = shortest distance between centers of the cations and the anions  
  14. Lattice Energy_____ as the ionic charge _____ and the distance between the anions and cations ______
    increases; increases; decreases 
  15. ionic compounds have electronegativity differences greater than 
  16. as the number of shared electrons (bonds) increases, the bond length ____
  17. with what equation do you use the bond energy to calculate approximate energies for reactions 
    deltaH = sum of the energies required to break old bond (endothermic) + sum of the energies released in formong new bonds (exothermic) 

    • D is always positive 
    • D = bond energy per mole of bonds 
  18. which elements obey the duet rule
    hydrogen, lithium, berylium, and boron 
  19. which elements MUST obey the octet rule 
    second row elements 
  20. what is the angle between hydrogens in water 
  21. what is the angle between hydrogens in mehtane 
  22. what is the angle between hydrogen sin ammonia