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Defining Social Justice
Social justice process refers to the way a group (of any size)allocates the costs and benefits of membership. Good process does not guarantee a good outcome…Fair process is necessary but not sufficient for achieving just outcomes”
Four Components of Social Justice
- Desert- an outcome is considered just when each person involved gets what he or she deserves.
- Need- just outcomes take into account each person's need
- Rights- an outcome to which we are entitled, based on a prior agreement or contract
Social Justice-Modern Approach
A just society is “ a society in which the distribution of resources is equitable and all members are physically and psychologically safe and secure. We envision a society in which individuals are both self-determining (able to develop their full capacities), and interdependent (capable of interacting democratically with others)”
Social Justice-Post Modern Approach
Rejection of absolute truth. Truth is socially constructed. Absolute justice is a misnomer. Groups of all sizes strive to achieve an acceptable stateof relative justice. Justice is “fair allocation of the costs and rewards of group membership.”
Veil of Ignorance
- Represents a hypothetical position in which individuals ignore their personal advantage in making decisions, because no one knows his place in society, his class position or social status nor does he know his fortunes in the distribution of natural assests and abilities, his intelligence and strength and the like.
- People would rationally choose distributive rules that employ a maximum strategy--rules that would maximize the welfare of the least well-off.
Why do people have to have a voice in the process of justice?
- Voice refers to a person's ability to influence decision making within the group.
- Individuals voice will be determined by the extent to which other hear and attend to that person's concerns
- Americans have a strong preference fro giving voice to people who are affected by decisions.
What are regressive taxes?
Aregressive tax takes a higher percentage of income and falls most heavily onlower income people.
How do Federal grant in aid programs relate to the constitution?
- Under tenth amendment, those powers not specifically delegated to the federal government are reserved for the states or the people.
- Through Grant-in-aid, the federal government offers money to states on the condition that they abide by federal regulations governing these programs
- This allows the federal government to deliver programs that might arguably extend beyond its constitutional authority.
What is policy analysis?
Is the systematic examination of a discrete aspect of social policy.
What are the three types of Policy Analysis?
- Process Approaches-Needs assessment, Prince Policy Appraisal
- Product Analysis- Goal or social problem, basis for entitlement, Nature of the benefit, administrative structure, financing mechanism
- Performance Analysis- Cost-benefit analysis
Cost benefit analysis
- Estimating the monetary values of costs and benefits, actual cost-benefit analysis
- Cost-effectiveness analysis, does not assign a dollar value, focusing instead on clearly describing cost and benefits
- Useful way to organize and understand public debate about a policy proposal
Prince Policy Appraisal
Can be used to gauge the power dynamics that determine political support for a new policy initiative, offering a systematic approach to understanding political processes that can otherwise seem mysterious
Five steps of Prince Policy Appraisal
- Identify the player who are likely to affect the decision
- Determine a position for each player
- Estimate the power that each player brings to the issue
- Estimate the priority of the issue for each player
- Calculate the likelihood that the policy will be implemented
Do people who have an alcohol addiction qualify to get social security?
- The result was series of initiatives that ultimately resulted in denial of OASDI and SSI benefits to anyone who is disabled primarily as the result of addiction
What did the Social Security act originally include?
What does TANF provide?
- Time-limited cash assistance for basic needs, such as food, clothing, housing, etc.
- Transitional services to help families become independent, such as GED preparation, vocational training, postsecondary education, vocational
- rehabilitation, classes in basic English, help with child care, work
- stipends, job retention services, etc.
- Screening for issues related to substance abuse, mental health, and
- domestic violence, and referrals for available services to address them.
What does 1996 PRWORA provide?
- Was designed to reduce federal welfare expenditures
- Turned AFDC to TANF with time limited assistance with a mandatory work requirements
- Reduced food stamp and SSI benefits
- Expanded Medicaid eligibility or directly purchase health coverage for uninsured children
- Set up welfare-to-work program for long term welfare clients
- Allows TANF funds to promote two parent families
- -promote healthy marriages
- -responsible fatherhood
- -marriage education and traning
- -advertising campaigns
- values education in high school
- abstinence education
Why could the Federal poverty threshold not be accurate?
- Overestimates the extent of poverty because it does not count in-kind benefits such as food stamps, housing assistance, and medical programs
- Underestimates hardship
- -multiplier is too low
- -budget based on temporary needs
- Threshold obscures regional differences
- Does not take into account other circumstances such as chronic illness or disability that might affect the families needs
Explanation of Poverty
Can be defined in both absolute and relative terms: Absolute poverty and Relative poverty. Someone who lives below poverty threshold that causes them to be poor which causes them to lack material possession and money
Is based on a fixed level of resources or threshold. A person whose resources fall below the threshold is viewed as experiencing absolute povert
Is based on comparison. An individual whose situation is disadvantages compared to someone elses, or compared to what it was int he past is experiencing relative poverty
What is the most common Medicaid expenditure?
Severe to persistent mental illness and addiction
- -People become homeless due to poverty and some of
- the reason could be due to loss of a job, mental illness, disability, people
- suffering from addiction disorders, women and children fleeing abusive
- situations, teenagers fleeing from home because of abuse or who get kicked out
- their home or kids who age out of foster homes.
- -When a person becomes homeless they have no
- home, nothing to shelter them from protection, and they are unable to pay for
- housing due to financial hardship and other reasons.
- Social justice is a view that everyone on the planet deserves equal rights and opportunities
- Social policy is about promoting welfare and well-being of people so that they can
- live safe, healthy and fulfilling lives
- Social policy is the outcome of social justice