Cell Biology Amino acids and other terms

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solnihil
ID:
198106
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Cell Biology Amino acids and other terms
Updated:
2013-02-05 12:02:35
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cell biology amino acids
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Description:
amino acid groups and some other vocabulary for YSU cell bio Exam 1
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  1. hydroylysis
    breaks a covalent bond by adding OH and H
  2. what are the basic building blocks of the cell (there are four)
    • sugars
    • fatty acids
    • amino acids
    • nucleotides
  3. name the macromolecule that fits these subunits:

    sugar
    amino acid
    nucleotide
    • polysaccharide
    • amino acid
    • nucleotide
  4. saturated vs unsaturated fats
    saturated fats have no double bonds between carbons

    unsaturated fats have some double bonds
  5. phospholipids
    made up of a hydrophilic head and two hydrophobic fatty acid tails (phospholipid bilayer)
  6. structure of an amino acid
    one amino group and a carboxyl group branched off a single carbon with a side chain (R) and a hydrogen attached
  7. Name the non-polar non aromatic amino acids and their prefixes
    • alanine (ala)
    • valine (val)

    isoleucine (ile)
  8. name the polar uncharged nonaromatic amino acids and their prefixes
    • glycine (gly)
    • serine (ser)
    • threonine (thr)
    • asparagine (asn)
    • glutamine (gln)
  9. name the charged (acidic) amino acids and their prefixes
    • glutamic acid (glu)
    • aspartic acid (asp)
    • histidine (his)
    • lysine (lys)
    • arginine (arg)
  10. name the aromatic amino acids and their prefixes
    • phenylalanine (phe)
    • tryptophan (trp)
    • tyrosine (tyr)
  11. peptide bond
    links two amino acids
  12. what are the four structures of proteins?
    • primary structure - linear
    • secondary structure - some amino acids form hydrogen bonds and fold into a spiral or pleated sheet
    • tertiary structure - coiled 3d secondary structures
    • quaternary structure - two polypeptides forming a functional protein
  13. structure of a nucleic acid
    • 5 carbon sugar
    • phosphate group
    • nitrogenous base (either purine or pyrimidine)
  14. purine vs pyrimidine
    • purines have a double ring (adenine and guanine)
    • pyrimidines have a single ring (cytosine, thymine, and uracil)
  15. H=G+TS
    • Gibb's free energy equation where 
    • h is enthalpy
    • s is entropy
  16. catabolism
    • breaks down molecules
    • energetically favorable
  17. anabolism
    • synthesize molecules
    • energetically unfavorable
  18. where groups do these carrier molecules carry?
    ATP
    NADH
    Acetyl CoA
    Carboxylated biotin
    S-Adenosylmethionine
    Uridine diphosphate glucose
    • ATP - phosphates
    • NADH - electrons and hydrogens
    • Acetyl CoA - acetyl groups
    • Carboxylated biotin - carboxyl groups
    • S-Adenosylmethionine - methyl groups
    • Uridine diphosphate glucose - glucose
  19. anaerobic respiration vs fermentation's final electron acceptor
    • anaerobic respiration's is inorganic
    • fermentation's is organic
  20. cells catabolize organic molecules and produce ATP in two ways:
    • substrate level phosphorylation
    • aerobic respiration
  21. How much ATP is gained from glycolysis?
    2
  22. Priming reactions of glycolysis
    2 phosphates added to glucose molecule
  23. Regulation of glycolysis is controlled by
    hexokinase and phosphofructokinase
  24. cleavage reactions of glucose
    6 carbon splits into 2 three carbon molecules with a phosphate on each
  25. Steps in glycolysis that use energy and what kind
    Steps 1 and 3 convert ATP to ADP for energy
  26. What steps in glycolysis gain energy and in what form?
    • Step 6 2NAD+'s are converted to 2 NADH's
    • Step 7 2 ADP's are converted to 2 ATP's
    • Step 10 same as step 7
  27. what two processes recycle NADH
    • aerobic respiration
    • fermentation
  28. what does aerobic respiration use to recycle NADH?
    acetyl-CoA oxidizes to NAD+
  29. what does fermentiaon use to recycle NADH
    can oxidize to lactic acid byproduct or use acetaldehyde to create ethanol and CO2
  30. where is the pyruvate molecule oxidized after glycolysis and into what
    • pyruvate is decarboxylated into 
    • acetyl-CoA
    • NADH
    • CO2

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