Biomed module 13 obj.16-20

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jnikrap
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198118
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Biomed module 13 obj.16-20
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2013-02-05 13:59:20
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Biomed module 13 obj 16 20
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Biomed module 13 obj.16-20
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  1. Stretch reflex / Patellar reflex
    • The fastest reflex
    • we test this by tapping the patellar tenon (below the kneecap) with a reflex hammer
    • This passively stretches the quadriceps, and the signal is carried to the spinal cord
    • it makes a synapse onto an alpha motor neuron innervating the quadriceps, so it contracts.
    • It only has on synaptic contact, its also called the monosynaptic stretch reflex
    • see p.608
  2. Flexor (withdrawal) reflex
    • we protect ourselves from painful stimuli with this reflex
    • see page 609
  3. Cross-extenso reflex
    • The right knee is flexed by the flexor reflex; at the the same time, the information is sent to the contralateral side of the spinal cord and activates extensors (i.e. quads) and inhibits flexors (i.e. biceps femoris) on the left leg.
    • see p. 610
  4. Plantar reflex (Babinski sign)
    • Stoke the metal end of the reflex hammer along the sole of he foot.
    • In a normal adult, response is plantar flexor: toes curl down toward sole of the foot
    • In spinal cord damage, brain damage or in babies less than 1 yr old, response is plantar extensor: toes splay up, away from sole of foot.
  5. General senses
    • These senses are found all over the body including the head.
    • Touch, vibration, pain, temperature, and proprioception 
  6. Special senses
    • those senses found only in the head
    • Vision
    • Olfaction (smell)
    • Gustation (Taste)
    • Hearing (audition)
    • Vestibular sensation- as part of the inner ear the head has organs to sense gravity and movement, in the semicircular canals and otolith organs.
  7. Vision( sight)
    the eye has a number of structures specialized for focusing an image on the retina(receptive sheet of the eye) 
  8. Vision/ parts of the eye: Orbit
    • this is where the eye is enclosed
    • a bony structure that is also filled with fat (adipose) to cushion and support the eye
  9. Vision/ parts of the eye: extraocular muscles
    these are what move the eye (there are six of them)
  10. Vision/ parts of the eye: palpebra
    Muscles that open and close the eye
  11. There are _______ inside the eye to change the size and shape of the _____ and _____. A number of _____ are also associated with the eye.
    muscles, pupil, lens, glands
  12. Palpebral Fissure
    • The space between the eyelids
    • This defines the part of the eye that is visible form the outside
  13. Conjuctiva
    • A thin mucus membrane
    • covers the sclera and is also continuous with the internal surfaces of the upper and lower palpebrae
    • Conjuctivitis - when the conjuctiva becomes inflamed, also called pink eye, results from a bacterial or viral infeciton.
  14. Important structures of the eye:
    What are the three tunics?
    • Three tissue layers that are each continous, like an onion.
    • Fibrous tunic: sclera, cornea
    • Vascular tunic (uvea): iris, cilary body, choroid
    • Nervous tunic: retina
  15. Important structures of the eye:
    Fibrous tunic
    consists of the sclera ("white of he eye') and cornea (clear covering over the pupil)
  16. Important Structures of the eye:
    Vascular tunic (uvea)
    • consisting of the iris (colored part of the eye surrounding the pupil)
    • The ciliary body (controls the shape of he lens)
    • Choriod (supplies blood to the retina and other structures of the eye)
    • When this layer is inflamed it is call uveitis and may threaten the sight of the patient.
  17. Important Structures of the eye:
    Nervous tunic
    consisting of the retina, an outpocketing of the CNS inside the eye.
  18. Other structures of the eye 
    • lens
    • vitreous chamber
    • anterior chamber
    • posterior chamber
    • optic nerve
    • see p. 614
  19. True ore false.
    The eyelids are controlled only by smooth muscle.
    False.

    they are controlled in part by smooth muscle and in part by skeletal muscle.
  20. When the nerves that innervate the eyelids are damaged by trauma or disease, the resulting condition is called ______.
    ptosis
  21. Accessory Structures of the Eye include:
    • Eyelids
    • Eyelashes
    • Eyebrows
    • Lacrimal apparatus 
    •   -lacrimal glands (make tears)
    •   -lacrimal ducts (allow tears to drain)
    • Extrinsic eye muscles
  22. Epicanthal fold
    • Notable external feture of the eyes 
    • these are normal structures in people of Asian decent, but can represent a sign of disease in people of other races
  23. The ________,________, and __________ _____ all work together to keep objects out of the eye, or to moisten and wash objects out of the eye if they do touch the surface.
    eyelashes, eyebrows, lacrimal apparatus
  24. Lacrimal glands
    • produce tears
    • almond-shaped organs located along the lateral aspect of the upper palpebra
  25. Lacrimal ducts
    • Tears pass out of the lacrimal ducts and along the surface of the eye.  
    • As they accumulate they are drained into the lacrimal canals and nasolacrimal duct into the nasal cavity
    • this is why your nose runs when you cry
  26. What are the six extraocular muscles?
    • One lateral-medial pair
    •   -lateral rectus; medial rectus
    • One superior-inferior pair
    •   -superior rectus; inferior rectus
    • On pair for rotation
    •   -superior oblique; inferior oblique
    • They are agonist and antagonist pairs of muscles.
  27. Vitreous body 
    jelly-like substance in contact with the retina in the larger central chamber of the eye.
  28. Cilary body
    filters blood to secrete aqueous humor into the anterior chamber
  29. Aqueous humor
    a filtrate of the blood that nourishes the lens and cornea.
  30. Anterior chamber
    • located between the lens and inside of the cornea.
    • These structures have no blood supply, because blood vessels would destroy the optical properties of  these clear structures.
  31. Posterior chamber
    along the interior surface of the iris, then between the lens and iris

    see p.616
  32. Iridocorneal angle
    • the junction between iris and cornea
    • There a structure called scleral venous sinus (canal of Schlemm) dumps aqueous humor back into the bloodstream.
  33. Glaucoma
    • The drainage of aqueous humor is partially or completely blocked (commonly) or the ciliary body over produces aqueous humor (rarely)
    • This imbalance results in increased pressure in the eye
    • Blindness may result
    • Drugs which scrunch up the iris(epinephrine) may block the scleral venous sinus and either cause glaucoma or make it worse.
  34. Lens
    a clear structure, shaped like an M&M, that works with the cornea to focus an image on the retina.
  35. When the eye is focused on a distant object the _______ _______ pulls on zonular fivers to _______ the lens.  
    ciliary muscle, flatten
  36. When they eye is focused on a near object the ciliary muscle _________, and the lens snaps back into a more ______ shape
    relaxes, spherical 
  37. Accomodation
    the process which changes the shape the lens to focus on objects near and far.
  38. Presbyopia
    • In older persons
    •  the elasticity of the lens is lost, along with the ability to focus on near objects, while the ability to focus on distant objects is preserved 
    • that is way they use reading glasses.

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