Test 1

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Test 1
2013-02-05 15:06:05
Microbiology Antley

Test 1 Spring 2013 Penny Antley
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  1. The study of small living organisms that we must use a microscope to see.
  2. An organism that obtains its energy from the oxidation of inorganic compounds
  3. A particular strain or kind of organism growing in a laboratory medium
  4. The modification of a cell in terms of structure and/or function occurring during the course of development
  5. Use of selective culture media and incubation conditions to isolate specific microorganisms from natural samples
    Enrichment culture technique
  6. A catalyst, usually composed of protein, that promotes specific reactions or groups of reactions
  7. Descent with modification; DNA sequence variation and the inheritance of the variation
  8. The total complement of genetic information of a cell or a virus
  9. In microbiology, an increase in cell number
  10. bacteria that are photosynthetic and use glucose
  11. A set of criteria for proving that a given microorganism cause a given disease
    Koch's postulates
  12. All biochemical reactions in a cell, both anabolic and catabolic
  13. A microscopic organism consisting of a single cell or cell clusters, also including the viruses, which are not cellular
  14. The property of movement of a cell under its own power
  15. A tumor-like structure produced by the roots of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing microbial component of the symbiosis
  16. A disease-causing microorganism
  17. A culture containing a single kind of microorganism
    Pure Culture
  18. The hypothesis that living organisms can originate from nonliving matter
    Spontaneous Generation
  19. Free of all living organisms and viruses
  20. A taxonomic group related species
  21. Defined in microbiology as a collection of strains that all share the same major properties and differ in one or more significant properties from other collections of strains; defined phylogentically as a monophyletic, exclusive group based on DNA sequences.
  22. How old is the earth?
    4.6 bya
  23. How long ago was the origin of cellular life?
    4 bya
  24. How long ago were anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria formed?
    3.7 bya
  25. How long ago was the origin of cyanobacteria?
    3 bya
  26. How long ago did Earth become oxygenated?
    2.5 bya
  27. How long ago were modern eukaryotes formed?
    2 bya
  28. How long ago was algal diversity formed?
    1.5 bya
  29. In the last how many years shelly invertebrates, vascular plants, mammals, and humans were formed?
    1 bya
  30. Where are most of the microorganisms found in the environment?
    Marine surfaces
  31. What was the leading cause of death in 1900's?
    Pneumonia and Flu
  32. What is the leading cause of death today?
    Heart disease and cancer
  33. Who is responsible for the discovery of microorganisms?
    Robert Hooke
  34. Who is responsible for the discovery of bacteria and the invention of the hand held microscope?
    Anton van Leeuwenhoek
  35. Who is responsible for the discovery of endospores?
    Ferdinand Cohn
  36. Structures in bacteria that are important in their survival.
  37. Who is responsible fore the mechanism of fermentation, the defeat of spontaneous generation, and the disproving of spontaneous generation?
    Louis Pasteur
  38. Who conducted the experiment to disprove spontaneous generation that involved an experiment in which he compared the growth of microorganisms in one flask containing sterile broth that was exposed to the air and one containing sterile broth that was not exposed to the air? The conclusion was microorganisms grew only in the flask exposed to the air, thereby refuting the idea that cells can arise spontaneously from nonliving matter.
    Louis Pasteur
  39. Who is responsible for the discovery of agents of tuberculosis and cholera, and proving that diseases are caused by microorganisms?
    Robert Koch
  40. Who is responsible for the enrichment culture technique and the discovery of many metabolic groups of bacteria?
    Martinus Beijerinck
  41. Who is responsible for methods for preventing infectious disease during surgery?
    Joseph Lister
  42. Who is responsible for the discovery of phagocytosis?
    Eli Metchnikoff
  43. Who is responsible for the discovery of the polio vaccine?
    Karl Landsteiner
  44. Who was the first person to stain bacteria with dyes?
    Paul Ehrilich
  45. Who is responsible for the discovery of the strain of pneumonia that is deadly (the R-strain)?
    Frederick Griffith
  46. Who is responsible for the discovery of penicillin?
    Alexander Fleming
  47. Who is responsible for the discovery of mobile genetic elements?
    Barbara McClintock
  48. Who are the people responsible for the discovery of the structure of DNA?
    Watson and Crick
  49. Who is responsible for the discovery of gene regulation by repressor proteins, operon concept?
    Francois Jacob
  50. Who is responsible for the discovery Thermus aquaticus which was thriving at 70 degrees Celcius? This was major because it led to the discovery of the polymerase chain reaction.
    Thomas Brock
  51. Who is responsible for the discovery of structure and sequencing of proteins, DNA sequencing?
    Fred Sanger
  52. Who is responsible for the discovery and characterization of prions?
    Stanley Prusiner
  53. Who is responsible for the discovery of the HIV as a cause to AIDS?
    Luc Montanier