Describe The Hormones

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Describe The Hormones
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2013-02-05 15:06:50
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  1. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
    • Anterior Pituitary
    • Target Organ: Ovaries, Testes.
    • Male: Sperm Production
    • Female: Estrogen Secretion and growth of ovarian follicle.
  2. Luteinizing Hormone ( LH )
    • Anterior Pituitary 
    • Target: Ovaries, Testes
    • Female: Ovlulation, maintenance of corpus luteum
    • Male: Testosterone secretion
  3. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone ( TSH )
    • Anterior Pituitary
    • Target Organ: Thyroid Gland
    • Growth of thyroid, secretion of thyroid hormone
  4. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • Anterior Pituitary
    • Adrenal cortex
    • Growth of adrenal cortex, secretion of glucocorticoids
  5. Prolactin (PRL)
    • Anterior Pituitary
    • Mammary glands, testes
    • Female: milk synthesis
    • Male: increased LH sensitivity
  6. Growth hormone (GH)
    • Anterior Pituitary
    • Liver, bone, cartilage, muscle, fat
    • Widespread tissue growth, especially in the stated tissues
  7. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • Posterior Pituitary
    • Kidneys
    • Water retention
  8. Oxytocin (OT)
    • Posterior Pituitary
    • Uterus, mammary glands
    • Labor contractions, milk release; possibly involved in ejaculation, sperm transport, sexual affection, and mother–infant bonding
  9. Melatonin
    • Pineal gland
    • Brain
    • Uncertain; may influence mood and sexual maturation
  10. Thymopoietin, thymosin, thymulin
    • Thymus
    • Immune cells (T lymphocytes)
    • Stimulate T lymphocyte development and activity
  11. Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
    • Thyroid gland
    • Most tissues
    • Elevate metabolic rate and heat production; increase respiratory rate, heart rate, and strength of heartbeat; stimulate appetite and accelerate breakdown of nutrients; promote alertness and quicken reflexes; stimulate growth hormone secretion and growth of skin, hair, nails, teeth, and fetal nervous system
  12. Calcitonin
    • Thyroid gland
    • Bone
    • Stimulates bone deposition, mainly in children
  13. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    • Parathyroid glands
    • Bone, kidneys, small intestine
    • Raises blood Ca2+ level by stimulating bone resorption and inhibiting deposition, reducing urinary Ca2+ excretion, and enhancing calcitriol synthesis
  14. Epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine
    • Adrenal medulla
    • Most tissues
    • Promote alertness; mobilize organic fuels; raise metabolic rate; stimulate circulation and respiration; increase blood glucose level; inhibit insulin secretion and glucose uptake by insulin-dependent organs (sparing glucose for brain)
  15. Aldosterone
    • Adrenal cortex
    • Kidney
    • Promotes Na+ and water retention and K+ excretion; maintains blood pressure and volume
  16. Cortisol and corticosterone
    • Adrenal cortex
    • Most tissues
    • Stimulate fat and protein catabolism, gluconeogenesis, stress resistance, and tissue repair
  17. Dehydroepiandrosterone
    • Adrenal cortex
    • Bone, muscle, integument, brain, many other tissues
    • Precursor of testosterone; indirectly promotes growth of bones, pubic and axillary hair, apocrine glands, and fetal male reproductive tract; stimulates libido
  18. Glucagon
    • Pancreatic islets
    • Primarily liver
    • Stimulates amino acid absorption, gluconeogenesis, glycogen and fat breakdown; raises blood glucose and fatty acid levels
  19. Insulin
    • Pancreatic islets
    • Most tissues
    • Stimulates glucose and amino acid uptake; lowers blood glucose level; promotes glycogen, fat, and protein synthesis
  20. Somatostatin
    • Pancreatic islets
    • Stomach, intestines, pancreatic islet cells
    • Modulates digestion, nutrient absorption, and glucagon and insulin secretion
  21. Pancreatic polypeptide
    • Pancreatic islets
    • Pancreas, gallbladder
    • Inhibits release of bile and digestive enzymes
  22. Gastrin
    • Pancreatic islets
    • Stomach
    • Stimulates acid secretion and gastric motility
  23. Estradiol
    • Ovaries
    • Many tissues

    Stimulates female reproductive development and adolescent growth; regulates menstrual cycle and pregnancy; prepares mammary glands for lactation
  24. Progesterone
    • Ovaries
    • Uterus, mammary glands
    • Regulates menstrual cycle and pregnancy; prepares mammary glands for lactation
  25. Inhibin
    • Ovaries,Testes
    • Anterior pituitary
    • Inhibits FSH secretion
  26. Testosterone
    • Testes
    • Many tissues
    • Stimulates fetal and adolescent reproductive development, musculoskeletal growth, sperm production, and libido
  27. Cholecalciferol
    • Skin
    • -
    • Precursor of calcitriol (see kidneys)
  28. Calcidiol
    • Liver
    • Precursor of calcitriol (see kidneys)
  29. Angiotensinogen
    • Liver
    • Precursor of angiotensin II (see kidneys)
  30. Erythropoietin
    • Liver
    • Red bone marrow
    • Promotes red blood cell production, increases oxygen-carrying capacity of blood
  31. Hepcidin
    • Liver
    • Small intestine, liver
    • Promotes iron absorption and mobilization
  32. Insulin-like growth factor I
    • Liver
    • Many tissues
    • Prolongs and mediates action of growth hormone
  33. Angiotensin I
    • Kidneys
    • Precursor of angiotensin II, a vasoconstrictor
  34. Calcitriol
    • Kidneys
    • Small intestine
    • Increases blood calcium level mainly by promoting intestinal absorption of Ca2+
  35. Atrial natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide
    • Heart
    • Kidney
    • Lower blood volume and pressure by promoting Na+ and water loss
  36. Cholecystokinin
    • Stomach and small intestine
    • Gallbladder, brain
    • Bile release; appetite suppression
  37. Gastrin
    • Stomach and small intestine
    • Stomach
    • Stimulates acid secretion
  38. Ghrelin
    • Stomach and small intestine
    • Brain
    • Stimulates hunger, initiates feeding
  39. Stimulates hunger, initiates feeding
    • Stomach and small intestine
    • Brain
    • Produces sense of satiety, terminates feeding
  40. Leptin
    • Adipose tissue
    • Brain
    • Limits appetite over long term
  41. Osteocalcin
    • Osseous tissue
    • Pancreas, adipose tissue
    • Stimulates pancreatic beta cells to multiply, increases insulin secretion, enhances insulin sensitivity of various tissues, and reduces fat deposition
  42. Estrogen, progesterone
    • Placenta
    • Many tissues of mother and fetus
    • Stimulate fetal development and maternal bodily adaptations to pregnancy; prepare mammary glands for lactation

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