BIO 116 Ch. 8

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BIO 116 Ch. 8
2013-02-05 15:33:18

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  1. Knowledge:
    synthesis of information that you have gathered from past experiences
  2. Attitude:
    the culmination of the synthesis and is when you have formed a conclusion
  3. probabilistic decisions:
    decisions that are based on information that tells us some percentage/chance that an event will occur or that some fact is true
  4. normative model:
    it help identify the best choice assuming that the decision-maker is well informed and rational
  5. Random or chance events occur _________ from one another
  6. judgment heuristics:
    use the information that we have from past experience and education to make a decision
  7. why is judgement heuristics more common than the normative model?
    because we don't always have statistics and facts in our knowledge to recall in making decisions
  8. representativeness:
    allows us to compare 2 very similar things; like matching personality traits to a stereotype
  9. what are the two problems with representativeness?
    • the process can be subconscious 
    • our perception is subjective 
  10. Availability:
    Items that are presently/recently in our memory tend to be perceived as being more probable than others that are less recent
  11. Familiarity:
    how often an item appears in our memory
  12. Salience:
    how distinct or vivid the item appears in our memory
  13. Anchoring:
    the way in which our current or original assessment affects how we arrive at new assessments
  14. optimistic bias or personal invulnerability:
    when making decisions about ourselves, we also have a personal bias that can occur
  15. What is the age correlation with optimistic bias?
    the younger you are, the more you think good things will happen
  16. What is the most common HIV test and how long is the window period?
    ELISA; 6 months
  17. Why might the ELISA come up negative in the window period?
    the person might not have made antibodies yet, which is what the ELISA test for
  18. If there is an HIV+ ELISA test, what's next?
    double checked with the Western blot test
  19. How does the rapid test work?
    they take a blood sample or saliva swab and the window on the instrument makes colored lines on the window to indicate a result
  20. How long does the Rapid test take for results?
    up to 2 weeks
  21. What is the difference between a confidential and anonymous test?
    a confidential test links your identity to the results and an anonymous one doesn't