A&P lecture

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  1. two main body cavities
    • dorsal body cavity
    • ventral body cavity
  2. dorsal body cavity contains
    • cranium-brain
    • spinal canal-spinal cord
  3. ventral body cavity contains
    • thoracic cavity- thorax/chest
    • abdominal cavity-abdomen
  4. paired structures
    kidneys, lungs, legs
  5. single structures
    brain, heart, GI tract
  6. thoracic cavity includes:
    heart, lungs, esophagus, many blood vessels
  7. pleura
    covers organs in the thorax
  8. peritoneum
    covers organs of abdomen 
  9. visceral
    covers organs
  10. parietal
    lines entire cavity
  11. 5 life functions
    • 1. growth
    • 2. response to pos&neg stimuli
    • 3. seek&absorb food
    • 4. eiminate wastes
    • 5. reproduction
  12. 4 basic tissues
    • Epithelial
    • Connective
    • Muscle
    • Nervous
  13. cells specialize in absorbing nutrients
    intestinal cells
  14. cells specialize in carrying oxygen
    red blood cells
  15. cells specialize in organizing and controlling body functions
    nerve cells
  16. 3 jobs of epithelial tissue
    • cover surface of body
    • line body cavities
    • form glands
  17. epithelial tissue found in
    lining of mouth, of intestines, of urinary bladder
  18. neuron
    essential cell of nervous tissue
  19. neuron consists of:
    • nerve cell body
    • 2 or more nerve processes (nerve fibers)
  20. axon
    process that conducts impulses away from the cell body
  21. dendrites
    process that conducts impulses toward the cell body
  22. 3 avenues of communication
    • 1. nervous
    • 2. circulation (arteries&veins)
    • 3. lymphatics
  23. 10 connective tissue examples
    (know ex of each)
    • 1. elastic
    • 2. collagenous (white tissue)
    • 3. dense regular
    • 4. dense irregular
    • 5. areolar
    • 6. reticular
    • 7. adipose
    • 8. cartilage
    • 9. bone
    • 10. blood
  24. epithelial tissue examples
    • 1. simple squamous epithelium
    • 2. cuboidal
    • 3. columnar 
    • 4. pseudostratified
    • 5. stratified squamous
    • 6. stratified columnar
    • 7. transitional
  25. makes up major weight contribution of animal
    connective tissue
  26. keyword describing muscle tissue
  27. 3 muscle tissues
    • cardiac
    • skeletal
    • smooth
  28. striated muscle
    cardiac & skeletal
  29. non-striated muscle
  30. primary systems involved in homeostasis
    • endocrine system
    • nervous system
  31. tissue that covers and lines
  32. tissue that provides support
  33. tissue that enables movement
  34. tissue that controls work
  35. morula
    mitotic division of the zygote will proceed to form a cluster of cells known as a morula
  36. blastula
    morula proceeds to a blastula
  37. blastocele
    • cavity of the blastula
    • (formed when uterine fluid diffuses into the spaces between the cells of morula)
  38. trophoblasts
    as fluid accumulates, it gradually separates the cells into an outer layer of cells called trophoblasts
  39. epiblast
    portion of inner cell mass closest to the trophoblast
  40. hypoblast
    portion adjacent to the blastocele
  41. amniotic cavity
    cavity formed dorsal to the epiblast
  42. main function of epithelial tissue
    cover and line other tissues
  43. glandular epithelia
    epithelia that release chemical substances
  44. individual glandular epithelia
    goblet cells
  45. organized glandular epithelia
    beta cells
  46. 6 functions of epithelial tissue
    • 1. protects, covers, lines
    • 2.filters biochemical substances
    • 3.absorb nutrients
    • 4.provides sensory input
    • 5.manufactures secretions
    • 6.manufactures excretions
  47. excretions
    substances that leave the body (sweat, urine)
  48. secretions
    substances that remain in the body
  49. general characteristics of epithelia
    • 1. they are polar. have an apical&basal surface
    • 2. junctional complexes (attachment areas)
    • 3.avascular
    • 4.most are innervated 
  50. 3 attachment areas /junctional complexes of epithelial tissue
    • tight junction
    • gap junction
    • spot desmosomes 
  51. tight junction
    impermeable barrier formed that prevents passage of substances from luminal end to basal end and vice versa. 
  52. spot desmosome
    strong, welded plaque that connects the plasma membranes of adjacent cells.

    filaments interlock with one another like velcro.

    "anchors" form stabilizing bases for the membrane junction.
  53. tight junctions found in
    • urinary bladder
    • digestive tract
  54. spot desmosomes found in
    tension and stretch areas like;

    • skin
    • heart
    • uterus
  55. gap junctions
    tubular channel proteins called connexons, extend from cytoplasm of one cell to cytoplasm of another allowing exchange and passage of ions and nutrients (amino acids&sugars)
  56. gap junctions found in
    • intestinal cells
    • heart
    • smooth muscle tissues
  57. blood vessels surface

    (simple squamous to smooth the blood flow)
  58. microvilli found in
    the intestines
  59. brush boarder found in
    trachea (mucosal but lined with cilia not simple squamous epithelium)
  60. simple
    single layer of epithelia
  61. examples of simple
    ducts, vessels, passageways

    (all have to be smooth=simple)
  62. stratified
    more than one layer thick
  63. examples of stratified
    • bottom of feet
    • elbows
    • knees
  64. shapes of cells
    • squamous
    • cuboidal
    • columnar

    (stratified may have all 3 or 2 of above)
  65. surface specialization examples
    • cilia
    • keratinized
  66. all blood vessels are lined by a layer of slender simple squamous epithelium cells called
  67. Histamine
    causes vessels to dilate resulting in movement of the endothelial cells sliding apart allowing WBC and protein rich plasma to escape into the tissue
  68. feline panleukopenia and canine parvoviral enteritis attack the:
  69. mesothelium
    simple squamous epithelium lining the body cavities such as mucosa and serosa.

    • pleural (chest)
    • pericardial (heart)
    • peritoneal (abdominal)
  70. endothelium
    simple squamous epithelium that forms the inner lining of the heart, blood vessels, and lymph vessels.
  71. mesenchymal epithelium
    simple squamous epithelium that lines the brain, eye, and discreet areas.
  72. simple squamous cells all derived from the
  73. plays an important role in endocrine/exocrine tissue, lining the ducts that carry hormones and enzymes
    simple cuboidal epithelium
  74. line gastrointestinal tract from stomach to rectum
    simple coulmnar epithelium
  75. occurs in regions of the body subject to mechanical and chemical stress
    stratified squamous epithelium
  76. epithelium with ability to stretch
  77. gland
    cell or group of cells that have the ability to manufacture and discharge a secretion
  78. secretions
    specialized protein molecules produced in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. packaged into granules by the Golgi apparatus then discharged from the cell
  79. classifying glands
    • 1. presence/absence of ducts (exo/endocrine)
    • 2. # of cells that compose them (uni/multicellular)
    • 3. shape of secreting ducts (simple/compound)
    • 4.complexity of glandular structure (tubular, acinar)
    • 5. type of secretion (mucoid/serous)
    • 6. manner secretion is stored&discharged (merocrine, apocrine, holocrine)
  80. merocrine
    cell remains intact during secretory process

    (pancreas, sweat, salivary glands)
  81. apocrine
    • looses part of the cell.
    • cell repairs the damage done due to secretion and repeats.

    found in mammary glands
  82. holocrine
    entire secretory cell is lost.

    ex: sebaceous glands
  83. endocrine glands
    do not have ducts.

    produce&secrete regulatory chemicals=HORMONES.

    secretions distributed throughout body primarily primarily via blood.
  84. exocrine glands
    • have ducts.
    • more common than endocrine.
    • act locally& do not enter circulation (musk, sweat, salivary)
  85. only example of unicellular exocrine glands
    goblet cell
  86. goblet cells found
    interspersed among columnar cells of respiratory and digestive tracts and in conjunctive of eye
  87. goblet cells jobs
    secrete mucin (thick mixture of glycoproteins mixed with water to make mucus)
  88. functions of mucus
    • protects apical surface
    • assists with entrapment of foreign particles
  89. multicellular exocrine glands
    • 2 components:
    • secretory unit (secretion produced)
    • duct (carries secretion to deposition site)
  90. serous secretions
    • watery
    • high concentration of enzymes
  91. mucous secretions
    thick, viscous, composed of glycoproteins
  92. epithelial membranes
    • mucous membranes
    • serous membranes
  93. mucous membranes
    • mucosae
    • line cavities open to outside

    (digestive, respiratory, urinary)
  94. serous membranes
    • serosae
    • not open to outside

    (pleura, pericardium, peritoneum)
  95. pleura
    lining the thorax
  96. peritoneum 
    lining the abdomen
  97. epithelial pathologies
    • 1. papule
    • 2. pustule
    • 3. vesicle
    • 4. wheal
    • 5. nodule
    • 6. tumor
  98. primary or secondary lesions
    • 1. scales
    • 2. hyperpigmentation
    • 3. comedones
    • 4. epidermal collarette
    • 5. erosion
    • 6. ulcer
    • 7. lichenification 
  99. 3 components of connective tissue
    • extracellular fibers
    • ground substance
    • cells
  100. diff consistencies of connective tissue
    • blood
    • tendon
    • fat
    • cartilage
    • bone
  101. ground substance
    medium through which cells exchange nutrients and waste within the bloodstream

    made of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)

    amorphous (no definite form)
  102. Fibers of connective tissue
    • collagenous
    • reticular
    • elastic
  103. most common connective tissue fiber
    collagenous fibers
  104. collagenous fibers
    • strong, thick strands
    • composed of the structural protein collagen

    found in tendon and ligaments that are continually being pulled&stretched

    "white fibers"
  105. reticular fibers
    • thin, delicate, branched 
    • composed of collagen but

    provide support for highly cellular organs such as: endocrine glands, lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, liver

  106. elastic fibers
    • can stretch and contract
    • composed of protein elastin

    in tissues that are commonly subjected to stretching: vocal cords, lungs, skin, walls of blood vessels

    "yellow fibers"
  107. major cells in connective tissue
    • fixed cells
    • transient cells
  108. fixed cells in connective tissue
    • fibroblast
    • chondroblast
    • osteoblast
    • adipocytes
    • reticular cells
  109. most noteworthy fixed cell
    fibroblast- large irregularly shaped cells that make and secrete fibers and ground substance characteristic of their particular matrix
  110. as fixed cells mature with development of the matrix, they adopt a less active role and this happens to their name
    they adopt the suffix "cyte"

  111. fat cells found through out connective tissue
    • adipose cells
    • adipocytes

    cluster into groups become adipose tissue
  112. reticular cells
    flat, forming netlike connections through out the tissue the compose

    involved in the immune response
  113. transient/ wandering cells
    • leukocytes
    • mast cells
    • macrophages (monocytes)
  114. mast cells found in
    perivascular connective tissue.

    may be of monocytic or basophilic origin.

    elaborate granules of histamine, heparin, & serotonin. (identified by dark staining granules in cytoplasm)
  115. macrophages (monocytes)
    • kupffer cells
    • histocytes
    • microglial cells
  116. diapedesis
    process where WBC squeeze through the spaces between simple squamous epithelial cells of the capillaries to enter the surrounding tissue.

    utilized most commonly by neutrophils (phagocytizing bacteria) first followed by the lymphocytes later
  117. mast cells
    • initiate an inflammatory response when released into the tissue
    • release histamine&heparin
  118. histamine
    promotes dilation of vessels increasing diapedesis
  119. heparin
    prevents blood from clotting and ensures the pathway for blood flow remains open.
  120. macrophage in the liver
    kupffer cell
  121. macrophage in the brain
    microglial cell
  122. macrophage in loose connective tissue
  123. macrophage in the blood stream
  124. 2 BROAD categories of connective tissue
    • connective tissue proper
    • specialized connective tissue
  125. 2 subclasses of connective tissue PROPER
    • 1. loose connective tissue
    • 2. dense connective tissue
  126. loose connective tissue includes
    • areolar
    • adipose
    • reticular
  127. dense connective tissue includes
    • dense regular
    • dense irregular
    • elastic
  128. areolar tissue
    • loose connective tissue
    • most common type of connective tissue
    • found everywhere in body
    • forms SQ layer that connects skin to muscle
  129. edematous
    in trauma, the spaces in areolar tissue can fill with an excessive amount of body fluid
  130. last place to loose adipose tissue
    around the heart
  131. adipose tissue
    • fat
    • big space occupiers
    • highly vascularized-important energy store
    • thermal insulator 
  132. describe brown adipose tissue
    plays an important role in temp. regulation b/c it is a site of heat production

    found in newborns and animals that hibernate during winter

    "slow release"
  133. white adipose
    found throughout the body, particularly in deep layers of skin
  134. connective tissue with cluttered look
    reticular connective tissue
  135. 3 dimensional network of thin reticular fibers
    reticular connective tissue
  136. predominant cell in areolar tissue
  137. stroma
    very dense&strong

    constitutes the framework of liver, spleen, lymph node, and bone marrow
  138. dense connective tissue
    densely packed arrangement of collagen fibers

    closed tight, no vacuoles or open spaces
  139. 3 types of dense connective tissue
    • dense regular
    • dense irregular
    • elastic
  140. designed to be pulled in one direction
    dense regular
  141. designed to be pulled in diff. directions
    dense irregular
  142. ligaments can stretch more than tendons because of the larger number of:
    elastic fibers
  143. nuchal ligament
    in the neck of horse, high concentration of elastic fibers makes it extremely flexible allowing horses to lower their heads for long periods of time while grazing
  144. specialized connective tissue
    • cartilage
    • bone
    • blood
  145. 3 types of cartilage
    • hyaline
    • elastic
    • fibrous or fibrocartilage 
  146. most common type of cartilage
  147. commonly called gristle
  148. lacunae 
    hollowed out pockets in the matrix
  149. why is cartilage slow to heal?
    it is avascular.
  150. growth in length
    epiphyseal plates
  151. elastic cartilage found in:
    • external ear (pinnae)
    • epiglottis
  152. fibrocartilage found in:
    • intervertebral disks
    • between bones in os coxae
    • stifle joint (meniscus)
  153. bone
    hardest and most rigid type of connective tissue


    specialized matrix:combination of organic collagen fibers and inorganic calcium salts, such as calcium phosphate&calcium carbonate
  154. explain the process of blood clotting
    • Thromboplastin converts Prothrombin to Thrombrim.
    • Thrombrim acts as a catalyst helping the reaction between Fibrinogen to Fibrin.
    • Fibrin is sticky and attracts Thrombocytes forming a clot. 
  155. always present in blood
    • thromboplastin
    • prothrombin
    • fibrinogen
    • thrombocytes
  156. plasma
    liquid component of blood.
  157. blood cells
    • erythrocytes (RBC)
    • leukocytes (WBC)
    • thrombocytes (platelets) 
  158. membranes
    thin, protective layers that line body cavities, separate organs, and cover surfaces.
  159. 4 common types of epithelial membranes
    • mucous
    • serous
    • cutaneous
    • synovial
  160. ex. of mucous membrane
    • digestive
    • respiratory
    • mouth
  161. ex. of serous membrane
    • pleural
    • peritoneal
  162. ex. of cutaneous membrane
  163. ex. of synovial membrane
    in joints
  164. transudate
    • watery, thin, clear
    • low specific gravity

  165. exudate
    • thick
    • high specific gravity

    (when cells, protein, and other solid material mix with serous fluid it becomes denser than a transudate and is called exudate)

  166. hemothorax
    blood in the thorax
  167. effusion
    when an abnormally large amount of fluid enters a body cavity, the fluid is known as an effusion.

    (a lot of high specific gravity fluid that should not be there)
  168. epicardium
    another name for visceral pericardium (lining of the heart)
  169. bilirubin
    yellow breakdown product of hemoglobin (formed in the liver)
  170. mesentery
    supportive ligaments that secure organs to the body wall
  171. mesoduodenum
    mesentery that connects the duodenum to the abdominal wall.
  172. omentum
    mesentery that connects the stomach to the abdominal wall
  173. broad ligament
    attaches the uterus to the wall
  174. cutaneous membrane
    integument or skin.

    composed of outer layer of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium or epidermis.
  175. synovial membrane
    • line the cavities of joints
    • have no epithelium
    • composed exclusively of connective tissue
    • manufacture synovial fluid that fills the joint spaces and with hyaline cartilage reduces friction and abrasion at ends of long bones
  176. muscle tissue fibers composed of specialized proteins:
    • Actin
    • Myosin
  177. skeletal muscle
    • voluntary 
    • striated

    • -numerous large cells may be up to a foot or more in length
    • -responsible for ability to walk, run, kick, bite, facial expressions

    (muscle we like to eat!)
  178. cardiac muscle
    • involuntary
    • striated

    -cells are connected to each other by intercalated disk
  179. smooth muscle
    • involuntary
    • non-striated

    -found in hollow organs such as blood vessels, urinary bladder, uterus, intestines, stomach
  180. responsible for peristalsis (contraction) in GI tract, constriction of blood vessels, emptying of bladder
    smooth muscle
  181. layers of digestive tract
    1.serosa-outer epithelial layer (visceral peritoneum)

    2. muscle layer- (2) longitudinal and circular (like screen door)

    3.sub-mucosa- nerves, blood, matrix

    4. mucosa- inner layer (apical)
  182. nervous tissue
    receive and transmit electrical and chemical signals through out the body

    -found in brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves
  183. 2 general cell types that compose nervous tissue
    • neurons (transmit impulse)
    • neuroglial cells (support neurons-found in greater numbers)
  184. longest cells in the body (up to a yard)
  185. 3 parts of neurons
    • perikaryon (stroma)- cell body
    • dendrites- short cytoplasmic extension
    • axon- long single extension of cytoplasm
  186. inflammation
    body's attempt to limit damage caused by the injury, to isolate the area, and to prevent further damage.
  187. how does repair occur
    • organization of granulation tissue
    • regeneration of lost tissue or scar formation
  188. cardinal signs of inflammation
    • 1. heat
    • 2. redness
    • 3. pain
    • 4. swelling
    • 5. loss of function
  189. shock is
    vasodilation and reduced cardiac output
  190. 2 detoxifiers
    • kidney
    • liver
  191. embryology
    • egg
    • zygote
    • embryo
    • fetus
    • newborn
  192. day 42
    ossification occurs
  193. microvilli
    increase surface area
  194. cilium 
    make sure air to lungs is as pure as possible
  195. vasodilation
    dilation of blood vessels, which decreases blood pressure
  196. edema
    swelling of tissue (plasma moved out of simple squamous epithelium) 
  197. simple cuboidal epithelium lines:
  198. simple coulmnar epithelium lines:
    length of gastrointestinal tract
  199. goblet cells 
    • found all over body
    • secrete enzymes
    • random
    • more commonly seen in columnar
    • never in squamous
  200. stratified squamous epithelium
    regions subject to mechanical and chemical stresses (mouth)

    cuboidal cells form the base
  201. stratified cuboidal epithelium
    primarily along large excretory ducts (sweat, mammary, salivary glands)
  202. pseudostratified coulmnar epithelium
    most ciliated and found in respiratory tract
  203. cele
  204. bile
    dissolves fat
  205. pancreas
    produces digestive enzymes for proteins, fats, carbs.

    • pancreatic amylase-break down starches
    • pancreatic lipase-breaks down fats
    • trypsinogen-breaks down proteins

    islet of langerhans secrete glucagon and insulin
  206. yellow fibers
  207. neutrophils vs. macrophage
    • neutrophils-gobble cells
    • macrophage/monocytes-gobble bigger
  208. produce antibodies
  209. 3 types of shock
    • 1. compensatory (vasoconstriction)
    • 2. progressive (vasodilation)
    • 3.irreversible 
  210. 24-48 hrs
    • only time digestive tract will absorb. 
    • simple squamous open to allow large protein molecules like antibodies (not matured. matured-expand&gaps get smaller)
  211. thelium vs. derm
    • thelium=location
    • derm=forming of tissue
  212. 70 % of blood in

    (30 % in arteries)
  213. thrombocytes
  214. mineral names
    • minerals
    • mixed with water=electrolytes
    • ash
  215. chylothorax
    lymphatic fluid (chyle) accumulating in the pleural cavity 

    (type of pleural effusion)
  216. is digestive tract striated or non striated?
    • non striated
    • & involuntary (cannot speed up food)
  217. lemma
    suffix meaning outer coating
  218. lay down the matrix
  219. what is a pathological condition that would change a transudate to an exudate?
    • hemothorax (blood in thorax)
    • chylothorax (lymphatic fluid in pleural)
  220. another name for sub mucosa
    lamina propia
  221. connective tissue behind the eyeballs
    adipose tissue
  222. blood vessels lined with:
    simple squamous epithelium then enveloped by areolar tissue
  223. first intention
    skin forms primary union w/out the formation of granulation tissue or scar formation

    • *both edges back together
    • little to no scar
  224. second intention
    edges separated from one other, in which granulation tissue forms to close the gap

    line of scar
  225. third intention
    occurs more slowly than second because larger, more extensive wounds (gaps) involved
  226. ligate
    tie off
  227. areolar and adipose tissue together referred to as
  228. going into abdominal cavity....
    • skin
    • areolar tissue
    • adipose tissue
    • muscle
    • peritoneum
    • -->surgery<--
  229. hooves and horns origin
  230. hoof/horns
    mass of horny keratin
  231. horns vs antlers
    • horns-grow continuously, not sex specific, epidermal in origin
    • antlers-shed annually, sex specific, dermal in origin, lack central core/internal blood supply
  232. polled

    dominant gene

    (sheep, goats, cattle)
  233. epidermis definition
    composed of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium , it is the outermost layer of the skin.
  234. diapedesis definition
    the process by which white blood cells leave the blood vessel and enter tissue by squeezing through the tiny spaces between the cels lining the blood vessel walls.
  235. designed to be pulled in one direction
    dense regular

    (tendons, ligaments)
  236. designed to be pulled in diff directions
    dense irregular
  237. 5 reasons dogs itch
    • 1. fleas
    • 2. sarcoptic mange
    • 3. food allergies
    • 4. atopy (inhaled allergies)
    • 5. hyperthyroidism
  238. receive impulses from other cells
  239. 4 stages of tissue healing and repair
    • 1. injury
    • 2. inflammation
    • 3. organization
    • 4. regeneration or fibrosis
  240. new, bright pink tissue
    granulation tissue
  241. what causes redness in the tissue around the wound?
    blood vessels dilate and become more permeable 
  242. what causes swelling?
    fluid leaks into the tissue from dilated capillaries
  243. blood clot later becomes a 
  244. what causes the pain?
    pressure of fluid on nerve endings
  245. describe organization (the 3rd stage of tissue healing and repair)
    granulation tissue forms below the scab. fibroblasts lay down collagen fibers while macrophages engulf foreign debris and invading microorganisms. 
  246. describe regeneration/fibrosis (the final step in tissue healing and repair)
    epithelial cells around wound edges proliferate (increase rapidly in numbers) and cover granulation tissue. scab is pushed off. granulation tissue becomes fibrous scar tissue which contracts and pulls wound edges together.
  247. responsible for phagocytizing and disposing of invasive microorganisms in infected wounds
    neutrophils and macrophages (monocytes)
  248. granulation tissue forms...
    beneath the overlaying blood clot or scab
  249. granulation tissue is composed of
    a layer of collagen fibers that has been manufactured by fibroblasts.
  250. granulation tissue produces
    bacterium inhibiting substances, which make it highly resistant to infection
  251. proud flesh
    granulation tissue becomes too thick and stands out above the epithelial layer 
  252. epithelialization
    while organization is occurring, epithelial cells around the wound edges actively divide to lay down a new layer of epithelial tissue over the granulation tissue.
  253. epithelialization occurs and granulation tissue is replaced by:
    scar tissue
  254. classifications of wound repair
    first, second, third intention 
  255. together referred to as fascia
    areolar and adipose tissue
  256. action of cardiac muscle
    pump blood
  257. actions of skeletal muscle
    move the bones and generate heat
  258. shapes of muscle tissue
    • skeletal- long, thin fiber
    • cardiac- branched
    • smooth-spindle
  259. nuclei of muscle tissue
    • skeletal-multiple
    • cardiac-single
    • smooth-single
Card Set:
A&P lecture
2013-02-14 07:13:49
anatomy physiology

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