Pathology - Chap 3 Respiratory

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pixy76
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198174
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Pathology - Chap 3 Respiratory
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2013-02-12 16:55:42
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Respiratory Chap Pathology
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Definitions for chap 3 Respiratory in pathology
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  1. Pneumonia caused by entrance of foreign particles aspirated into the lower respiratory tract
    Aspiration pneumonia
  2. A glandular tumor, either benign or malignant, situated in the submucosal tissues of large bronchi
    Bronchial Carcinoid
  3.  Chronic dilation of the bronchi, with inflammation and destruction of bronchial walls and cilia
    Bronchiectasis
  4. Carcinoma of the lung that arises from the epithelium of the bronchial tree
    Bronchogenic Carcinoma
  5. most often arises from long-term, heavy cigarette smoking or prolonged exposure to high levels of industrial air pollution, which irritates the mucous lining of the bronchial tree and increases susceptibility to both bacterial and viral infections
    Chronic Bronchitis
  6. What does the respiratory system do?
    distributes air for gas exchange with the circulatory system
  7. Which pleura adheres directly to the lung tissue?
    Visceral pleura
  8. What are the only paranasal sinuses present at birth?
    maxillary and ethmoid
  9. What is most frequently performed exam in the radiology department?
    chest x ray
  10. What are the 2 standard projections for chest radiography?
    Erect PA and Left Lateral
  11. What is the most common complaints of radiologists?
    poor exposure technique
  12. What is mediastinal emphysema?
    Occurs when there has been a disruption in the esophagus or airway and air is trapped in the mediastinum and can be caused by chest trauma, endoscopy, or violent vomiting.
  13. What is the sail sign?
    Normal enlargement of the thymus in infants that shows up in both frontal and lateral projections of a chest radiograph
  14. Where are Hickman catheters placed?
    open the the outside of the body with the tip of the catheter placed in the superior vena cava
  15. lack of respiratory function or the lack of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange 
    Respiratory failure
  16. denotes low oxygen levels withing the arterial blood and is caused by toxic gas or smoke inhalation, high altitudes, hypoventilation, or impaired diffusion(a physical seperation of gas and blood)
    Hypoxemia
  17. the inability to move air into and out of the lungs, with consequent increased blood carbon dioxide content
    Hypercapnia
  18. is a generalized disorder resulting from a genetic defect transmitted as an autosomal recessive gene that affects the function of exocrine glands. In chromosome 7, affects mainly white children, and the life span is between 20 and 30.
    Cystic fibrosis
  19. also known as respiratory distress syndrome, affects infants and is a disorder of prematurity or infants born at less than a 37-week gestation
    Hyaline Membrane Disease
  20. is the most frequent type of lung infection, resulting in an inflammation of the lung (pneumonitis) and comprised pulmonary function
    Pneumonia
  21. is the most common bacterial pneumonia because this type of bacteria is often present in healthy throats, generally affecting a whole lobe of the lung
    Pneumococcal pneumonia
  22. occurs sporadically except during epidemics of influenza, when secondary infection with staphylococci is common
    Staphylococcal pneumonia
  23. a thin-walled, air-containing cyst, characteristic radiographic lesion and is more typically seen in children
    pneumatocele
  24. is even rarer pneumonia accounting for less than 1% of all hospital admissions for acute bacterial pneumonia
    Streptococcal pneumonia
  25. can be caused by various viruses, most commonly influenza A and B. It is more common that bacterial pneumonia but less severe
    Viral(interstitial) pneumonia
  26. is a permanent, abnormal dilation of one or more large bronchi as a result of destruction of the elastic and muscular components of the bronchial wall
    Bronchiectasis
  27. is an infection caused by inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, may also affect genitourinary, skeletal, and central nervous systems
    Pulmonary tuberculosis
  28. refers to a group of disorders that cause chronic airway obstruction. The most common forms are chronic bronchitis and emphysema
    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  29. What is the predominant risk factor associated with COPD?
    cigarette smoking
  30. is a condition in which the lung's alveoli become distedned, usually from loss of elasticity or interference with expiration
    Emphysema
  31. are occupational diseases in which inhalation of foreign inorganic dust from a particular work environment results in pulmonary fibrosis
    Pneumoconioses
  32. the oldes known pneumoconiosis, results from inhaling silica (quartz) dust and is common among miners, grinders, and sandblasters.
    Silicosis
  33. or black lung disease, results from inhalation of coal dust over an extended period of about 20 years. As the coal dust is deposited in the lungs, "coal macules" develop around the bronchioles and cause their dilation.
    Anthrocosis
  34. results from the inhalation of asbestos dust, which can cause chronic injury to the lungs. Asbestos dust is found in building materials and insulation. 
    Asbestosis
  35. a rare malignant neoplasm of the pleura, caused by high exposure to asbestos and develops at least 15 years later.
    Mesothelioma
  36. is a systemic fungal infection caused by a fungus that thrives in soil, especially that fueled by bird or bat excreta
    Histoplasmosis
  37. a systemic, fungal infection that is caused by a fungus that thrives in semiarid soil, particularly the southwestern United States and northern Mexico.
    Coccidioiomycosis
  38. is a localized area of dead(necrotic) lung tissue surrounded by inflammatory debris
    Lung abscess
  39. an accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity, usually caused by some primary lung infection
    Empyema
  40. inflammation of the pleura and is often indicative of a serious condition such as pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, TB, or malignant disease
    Pleurisy
  41. excess fluid collects in the pleural cavity and is a frequent manifestation of serious thoracic disease, usually pulmonary or cardiac in origin
    Pleural effusion
  42. a pleural effusion containing blood
    Hemothorax
  43. the second most common radiographic presentation of a neoplasm consists of a solitary radiopaque lung nodule
    coin lesion
  44. What are the 5 different routes a malignancy is spread to the lungs?
    • 1) through the bloodstream in hematogenous metastases
    • 2) through the lymph system in lymphogenous metastases
    • 3) by direct extension in local invasion
    • 4) through the tracheobronchial system in bronchogenic mestastases
    • 5) direct implantation from biopsies or other surgical procedures
  45. Is Cystic fibrosis an additive or subtractive pathology? What is the modality of choice for this?
    additive, radiograph
  46. Is Hyaline membrane disease an additive or subtractive pathology? What is the modality of choice for this?
    additive, radiograph
  47. Is pneumonia an additive or subtractive pathology? what is the modality of choice for this?
    additive, radiograph
  48. Is Bronchiectasis an additive or subtractive pathology? What is the modality of choice for this?
    additive, CT
  49. Is Tuberculosis an additive or subtractive pathology? What is the modality of choice for this?
    additive, radiograph
  50. Is COPD an additive or subtractive pathology?
    What is the modality of choice for this?
    subtractive, radiograph
  51. Is pneumoconioses an additive or subtractive pathology? What is the modality of choice for this?
    additive, radiograph
  52. Is fungal disease an additive or subtractive pathology? What is the modality of choice for this?
    additive, radiograph
  53. Is lung abscess an additive or subtractive pathology? What is the
    modality of choice for this?
    additive, CT
  54. Is pleurisy an additive or subtractive pathology? What is the modality of choice for this?
    neither, none
  55. Is pleural effusion an additive or subtractive pathology? What is the modality of choice for this?
    additive, radiograph
  56. Is Bronchial Adenoma an additive or subtractive pathology? What is the modality of choice for this? 
    additive, CT
  57. Is Bronchogenic carcinoma an additive or subtractive pathology? What is the modality of choice for this?
    additive, CT
  58. Is Metastatic lung disease an additive or subtractive pathology? What is the modality of choice for this?
    additive, CT
  59. What is located in the anterior mediastinum?
    Thyroid and thymus glands
  60. What is located in the middle mediastinum?
    Heart, great vessels, esophagus, and trachea
  61. What is located in the posterior mediastinum?
    Descending aorta and spine
  62. What is an endotracheal tube?
    A tube inserted through the nose or mouth into the trachea and used to manage the patient's airway
  63. What is a chest tube? 
    Used to drain blood or fluid from the thoracic cavity, also called thoracostomy tube
  64. Where is a port-a-cath placed?
    Under the skin, just below the clavicle, not open to the outside, less likely to become infected
  65. What is surfactant?
    Is made up of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates; coats the alveoli of the lungs to Reduce surface tension and prevents the collapse of the alveoli

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