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What were the characteristics of Indians?
- dependent on buffalo
- warrior culture
- resented whites
What the reasons for the defeat of the Indians?
- Expansion of white settlement
- government policy(reservations)
- military action
- disappearance of the buffalo-major reason
What happened in the Sioux wars battle of little bighorn or custers last stand?
sioux wipe out cutster's outfit
What was the result of the Battle of Little Bighorn?
caused americans to demand the sioux be defeated
What the battle of wounded knee?
- u.s army shot and killed 200 Indians while they were surrounding
- this ended Indian resistance in the plains
Who was Helen Hunt Jackson?
- wrote a century of dishonor
- wrote about the terrible treatment of Indians from the U.S government
What was the Dawes severalty act?
tried to americanize Indians by breaking tribal authority
What happened for Indians in 1924 and 1934?
- gain us citizenship
- tribal authority restored
When was the california gold rush? Where were others?
- Colorado, nevada, dakotas, and later alaska
What was the impact of mining?
- rise of outlaws
- conflict with indians
- demand for statehood
- mining became big buisiness
What was the cattle boom?
the biggest economic boom in the west, but only for a short time
What was the long range?
taking cattle from texas to the railroads
What was the open range?
Grazing the cattle on public road
Who many of cowboys were black?
What were the problems with ranchers?
What were the results of ranchers?
ranching became big buisiness
What was the key to white settlement?
- transportation, land grants access to markets, etc.
Where did transcontinental RR begin?
Who became dependent of RRs? Who built most of them?
What was the Homestead Act?
gave 160 acres of land to anyone who would settle and cultivate it for 5 yrs
What were the agricultual advancements?
steel plow, barbed wire, windmills
What did farmers in west want?
What were the farmers problems?
- hardship of frontier life
Who was the only group to survive out west?
What did the Turner Thesis about the Frontier?
- most important factor in american history
- frontier promoted democratic spirt
- saftey valve theory
What was the safety valve theory?
allowed people who couldn't make it in the east a place to go
What was the western legend?
Americans started to romantize the west
What was the Grange? What did they do?
- org. of farmers who wanted to do something about the problem with RRs
- they get the states to pass laws to regulate RRs
What was Wabalsh vs. Illinois?
supreme court said states could not regulate RRs
What did congress set up in 1887?
Why did the Grange fail?
- their goals were unrealistic
- RR companies were too powerful
- Hurt by Panic of 1873
What was the greenback labor party?
- demanded that the government use greenbacks
- big following the panic of 1873
What was the populist platform?
- unlimited coinage of silver- big issue
- direct election of senators
- nationalization of RR, bank and utilites
- 8-hr work day
- graduated income tax
- secret ballot
- limited immigration
- term limit for president- 1 four yr term
What happened in the election of 1892?
- Cleveland defeats Harrison
- populists win seats in congress
What was Coxey's army?
unemployed marched on washington
What was the result of Coxey's army?
made unemployment a national issue
How did the panic of 1893 end?
J.P Morgan loaned 6.5 mill in gold
Who ran in the election of 1896?
- rep- Mckinley- major from ohio
- controlled by Marcus Alonzo Hanna
- Dem- William Jennings Bryan
What was Bryans speech called? What did it promote?
- the cross of gold
- promoted silver issue
What were the results of the election of 1896?
- Mckinley wins
- sectional election
- political importance of farmers
- changed american politcs- democrats adopt populist ideas
What was the Domestic- Dingley Tarriff?
raised tariff to an all time high up to that point
What is the definition of the progressive movement?
reform movement aimed at solving the problems of the industrial revolution
What were the aims of the progressive movement?
- wanted to restore balance of christian moral values, capitalism, competition, and democracy
- regulate big business
- improve labor conditions
- end political corruption
- extend democracy
What happened at the Triangle shirt waist factory?
about 150 young girls are killed by factory fire
Evaluation of Progressive Movement?
- Was it conservative or liberal?
- was it socialistic or even facist?
What was one veiw of Progessive movement?
used the gov. to promote and extend democracy and the general welafare of people
What was the other veiw of Progressive movement?
beginning of statism
What was statism?
the gov. control of society- or socialism
What was the foundation and support of the Progressive Movement?
- Populism(historical base)
- Intellectuals(Ideological Base)
- Women(social base)
- Middle Class(financial base)-key to the movement
- Journalists(informational base)
What did Henry James' Pragmastism say?
truth is relative, not absoulte
What did John Dewy's Pragmatism in Education say?
"learning by doing"
What did Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr do?
start of activist court
What did Ida Tarbell write?
History of standard Oil Comapany
What did Lincoln Steffens The Shame of Citites do?
exposed political machines
What did Frank Norris The Octupus and The Pit do?
What did Upton Sinclairs the Jungle do?
- shows poor working contidions
- promoted socialism
Who was the leading progessive and where was he from?
- Robert "fighting Bob" Lafollette
What did fighting bob want?
- Direct primary elections
- state income tax
- Regulation of RR and trusts
- secret ballot
- Initiative, Referendum, Recall
What was social reform in the states?
states passed laws primarily to help labror
What is Eugenics?
the science of racial improvement
What was the IWW(international workers of the World or the Wobblies)?
a radical labor group who preached revolution
What was the big failure of progessive movement?
What was Plessy v. Ferguson?
made seperate but equal legal
Who was Ida Barnett Wells?
a newspaper editior and stared a national anti-lynching campaign
Who was revived on the top of stone moutain in 1915? where was it popular? What movie glorified it?
- all over country
- Birth of a Nation
What was Teddy Roosevelt's character?
over-achiever, uncoventional, strongest pres. since Lincoln
What was the Pennslyvannia coal stike?
- Minors go on stike
- TR said he would have the gov. take over mines if strike wasn't settled
What was the result of the Pennslyvannia coal strike?
Roosevelt first pres. not to side against labor in a strike
What did Roosevelt start the break up of?
What happened to legislation under Roosevelt?
strengthen existing legislation
Who started Federal conservation porgram?
What was T Roosevelt's legacy?
educated nation in progressiveness ideas
What was William Howard Taft's character?
conservative at heart
What happened to trusts under Taft?
90 trusts are be split up
Who were the Insergents?
republicans that want more progressive reforms
What was Ballinger-Pinchot affair?
involved the selling of public land to private companies
What was the result of the Ballinger-Pinchot affair?
causes a split between Roosevelt and Taft
Who ran in the election of 1912?
- reps- Taft
- Dems- Woodrow Wilson- New Freedom
- Progressives-Bull Moose- TR- New Nationalism
- Socalist- Eugene V. Debs
What was Wilsons New Freedom Program about?
- lower tariff
- reform banking
Who won the election of 1912? What was the big winner?
What was Wilsons character?
idealistic and moralistic
When did Progressive end?
world war one
What was the mood after WW1?
What was the Pure Food and Drug Act?
- set up the FDA
- promted by the jungle
What was the Underwood-Simmons Tariff?
- lowered tariff duties
- 1st major reduction since civil war
What was the Federal Reserve Act?
set up national banking system to regulate currency and state banks
What was 16th ammendment?
federal income tax
What was 17th ammendment?
direct election of senators
What was 18th ammendement?
outlawed manufactoring, buying and selling acohol.
What was 19th amendment?