BioE 220 Chapter 5. Cellular Principles

Card Set Information

BioE 220 Chapter 5. Cellular Principles
2013-02-05 19:02:18
Bio Engineering Cellular Principles

BioE chapter 5 vocab and concepts
Show Answers:

  1. Adhesion molecules
    A family of extracellular and cell surface glycoproteins involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, recognition, activation, and migration
  2. Anaphase
    A stage in meiosis and mitosis in which sister chromatids are separated by the mitotic spindle fiver
  3. Apoptosis
    Programmed cell death that enables the body to dispose of damaged, unwanted, or unneeded cells
  4. Asymmetrical division
    A division process of unipotent cells in which one of the two offspring maintains stem cells characteristics and the other differentiates and maintains a specific function
  5. Cotransporter
    A secondary active transport system in which both the primary and secondary solute move in same direction across the membrane
  6. Crisis
    The critical point in culture of tissues in which the cell must adapt to the culture environment or die
  7. Cytokinesis
    Division of the cytoplasm of a cell in which two daughter cells result
  8. Cytoskeleton
    A structural support of the cell composed of protein filaments that facilitate cell division, movement, and shape; the protein filaments that compose the cytoskeleton also serve as tracks in which substances are transported within the cell
  9. Differentiation
    Changes in cell shape and physiology associated with the production of the mature cell types of a particular organ or tissue
  10. DNA systhesis
    The process of copying a double-stranded DNA strand prior to cell division resulting in two copies of the original DNA strand
  11. Eukaryotic
    A cell that maintains distinct organelles, a cytoskeleton, and nucleus such as fungi, protozoa, plants, and animals
  12. Exchanger
    A secondary active transport system in which the primary and secondary solute move in opposite directions across the membrane
  13. Extracellular matrix (ECM)
    Any material produced by the cell and secreted into the surrounding medium, 3-D scaffold embedded in a gel containing proteins and filament fibers
  14. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)
    Long, unbrached polysaccharide molecules that are found on the cell membrane and help give various tissue desired structure
  15. Golgi apparatus
    An organelle composed of stacks of separate intracellular membrane compartments that function to modify and package secreted and integral membrane proteins. 
  16. Growth factors
    Serum proteins that stimulate cell division when they bind to a corresponding cell-surface receptor
  17. Hematopoietic stem cells
    Undifferentiated cells in the bone marrow that hae the ability to both multiply and differentiate into specific blood cells
  18. In vitro
    Biological or chemical work done in a test tube rather than in the organism itself
  19. Integrins
    The largest family of adhesion molecules that mediate cell-cell, cell-ECM, and cell-pathogen interactions by binding non to various non-integrin molecules
  20. Invariant asymmetrical division
    A mechanism of stem ell division in which a differentiated progenitor is produced as well as a constant number of stem cells
  21. Lysosome
    A membrane-enclosed vesicle consisting of hydrolytic enzymes used to breakdown cellular components and proteins found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells
  22. Medium
    Any material on or in which experimental cell cultures grow. Variety or nutrients 
  23. Mitochondria
    An eukaryotic organelle that is the site of ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation
  24. Necrosis
    death in which the cell swells and ruptures
  25. Nuclear membrane
    Membrane system that surrounds the nucleus of eukaryotic cells
  26. Nucleus
    A membrane-bound organelle containing the entire genetic material, genome, of eukaryotes
  27. Organelle
    An intracellular substructure having a specialized utility essential to proper cellular function
  28. Oxidative phosphorylation
    Process which ATP is produced in conjunction with the mitochondrion from the breakdown or charbohydrates and fatty acids
  29. Peroxisome
    An organelle containing enzymes that catalyze the production and breakdown of hydrogen peroxide throughout the cell
  30. Pluripotency
    Property of a stem cell to develop into more than one type of differentiated cell
  31. Primary active transport
    Movement of molecules across a biological membrane that is driven by a chemical reaction, usually the hydrolysis of ATP
  32. Progenitor
    A type of cellular result from stem cell division which is characterized as the differentiated cell with a specific function
  33. Prokaryotic
    Primitive cells that lack cytoplasmic organelles, cytoskeleton, and nuclear membrane... no nucleus
  34. Ribosome
    A complex organelle composed of various proteins and ribosomal RNA that catalyzed the translation of mRNA into an a.a. sequence
  35. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER)
    Extensive membranous network, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and studded with ribosomes that give it a rough apperance
  36. Secondary active transport
    Movement of molecules across a biological membrane that is driven by the spontaneous movement of another molecule
  37. Selectins
    A family or adhesion molecule that recognized and interacts with glycoproteins on the surface of other cells
  38. Smooth ER
    extension of the ER responsible for lipid synthesis
  39. Stem cell
    Undifferentiated cell. Limitless self-renewal and multilineage differentaiation
  40. Unipotent
    A property of cells that are only capable of developing into one type of cell or tissue
  41. Vector
    In DNA cloning, the plasmid or phage chromosome used to carry the cloned DNA segment