CONCEPTS CHAP 2

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sandovalfj
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198215
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CONCEPTS CHAP 2
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2013-02-06 13:27:19
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CONCEPTS CHAP 2
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  1. 1ST I OF MICROBIOLOGY
    INOCULATION - THE IMPLANTATION OF MICROORGANISMS INTO OR ONTO CULTURE MEDIA
  2. 2ND I OF MICROBIOLOGY
    INCUBATION - ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS THAT ARE OPTIMAL FOR VISIBLE MICROBIAL GROWTH 
  3. 3RD I OF MICROBIOLOGY
    ISOLATION - SEPARATING ONE PARTICULAR MICROBE FORM OTHERS IN ORDER TO BETTER INSPECT IT
  4. 4TH I OF MICROBIOLOGY
    • INSPECTION - COLONIES OR BROTH CULTURE ARE OBSERVED AND ANALYZED MACROSCOPICALLY FOR GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS
    • COLOR
    • TEXTURE
    • SIZE
  5. 5TH I OF MICROBIOLOGY
    IDENTIFICATION - DETERMINED BY A VARIETY OF TEST THAT ARE MEANT TO DESCRIBE AND DIFFERENTIATE THE MICROBES
  6. WHAT ARE THE 4 STATES OF MEDIA
    • LIQUID
    • SEMISOLID
    • SOLID (CAN BE LIQUEFIED)
    • SOLID (CAN'T BE LIQUEFIED)
  7. WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF AGAR
    MEDIA THAT IS FLEXIBLE AND MOLDABLE, CAN HOLD MOISTURE AND NUTRIENTS PROVIDING A ENVIRONMENT FOR MICROBES TO GROW
  8. DESCRIBE CHEMICALLY DEFINED MEDIA
    • CHEMICAL COMPOSITION IS PRECISELY DEFINED BY AND EXACT FORMULA
    • CONTAIN PURE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS WITH LITTLE VARIANCE FROM ONE TO THE NEXT
  9. DESCRIBE MINIMAL MEDIA
    • CONTAIN NOTHING MORE THAN A FEW ESSENTIAL COMPOUNDS SUCH AS SALTS AND AMINO ACIDS
    • MAY CONTAIN A VARIETY OF DEFINED ORGANIC AND INORGANIC CHEMICALS
  10. DESCRIBE COMPLEX MEDIA
    • CONTAIN AT LEAST 1 INGREDIENT THAT IS NOT CHEMICALLY DEFINABLE
    • EXTRACTS OF ANIMALS, PLANTS, OR YEASTS
    • BLOOD, SERUM, MEAT EXTRACTS OR INFUSIONS
    • PRESENT A RICH MIX OF NUTRIENTS FOR MICROBES THAT HAVE COMPLEX NUTRITIONAL NEEDS
  11. DESCRIBE SELECTIVE MEDIA
    • CONTAINS ONE OR MORE AGENTS THAT INHIBIT THE GROWTH OF CERTAIN MICROBES BUT NOT OTHERS
    • IMPORTANT IN THE ISOLATION OF A SPECIFIC TYPE OF MICROORGANISM
  12. DESCRIBE DIFFERENTIAL MEDIA
    • ALLOW MULTIPLE TYPES OF MICROBES TO GROW BUT ARE DESIGNED TO DISPLAY DIFFERENCES AMONG THEM
    • COLONY SIZE OR COLOR
    • MEDIA COLOR CHANGES
    • GAS FORMATION
    • BUBBLES
    • PRECIPITATES
  13. DESCRIBE REDUCING MEDIA
    • CONTAINS A SUBSTANCE THAT ABSORBS OR SLOWS THE PENETRATION OF OXYGEN
    • THIOGLYCOLIC ACID
    • IMPORTANT FOR GROWING ANAEROBIC BACTERIA
  14. WHAT IS THE SIZE RANGE OF VIRUSES, BACTERIA, PROTOZOA AND ALGAE
    • VIRUSES 20-800 NM
    • SMALLEST BACTERIA 200NM
    • PROTOZOA AND ALGAE 3-4 MICROMETERS
  15. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE OBJECTIVE LENS
    CLOSEST TO THE SPECIMEN CREATES THE INITIAL IMAGE CALLED THE REAL IMAGE
  16. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF THE OCULAR LENS
    • FORMS THE SECOND IMAGE CALLED THE VIRTUAL IMAGE THAT WILL RECEIVED BY THE EYE
  17. WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE OIL OBJECTIVE
    CAN RESOLVE IMAGES THAT ARE AT LEAST .2 MICROMETERS IN DIAMETER AND AT LEAST .2 MICROMETERS APART
  18. WHY IS OIL NECESSARY FOR VISIBILITY
    OIL CAPTURES LIGHT THAT WOULD OTHERWISE BE LOST TO SCATTER
  19. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF A WET MOUNT OR HANGING DROP
    TO OBSERVE MICROBES AS NEAR TO THEIR NATURAL STATE AS POSSIBLE  PROVIDE SPACE FOR LOCOMOTION
  20. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF A HEAT FIXED SMEAR SLIDE
    • MORE PERMANENT MOUNT USED FOR LONG-TERM STUDY
    • HEAT GENTLY TO KILL SPECIMEN AND ATTACH SLIDE
  21. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BASIC AND ACIDIC DYES
    • BASIC DYES HAVE A + CHARGE
    • ATTRACTED BY CELLS
    • ACIDIC DYES HAVE A - CHARGE
    • REPELLED BY CELLS
  22. WHAT IS A POSITIVE STAIN
    DYE STICKS TO THE SPECIMEN AND GIVES IT COLOR
  23. WHAT IS A NEGATIVE STAIN
    DOES NOT STICK TO THE STAIN BUT SETTLES SOME DISTANCE FROM ITS OUTER BOUNDARY FORMING A SILHOUETTE
  24. WHAT IS A SIMPLE STAIN
    • ONLY REQUIRE A SINGLE DYE AND AN UNCOMPLICATED PROCEDURE
    • ALL CELLS ON SLIDE APPEAR MORE OR LESS THE SAME COLOR
    • REVEAL SIZE, SHAPE AND ARRANGEMENT
  25. WHAT ARE DIFFERENTIAL STAINS
    • USES 2 DIFFERENT COLORED DYES
    • PRIMARY
    • COUNTERSTAIN
    • DISTINGUISHES CELL TYPES OR PARTS
    • COMPLEX AND REQUIRES ADDITIONAL CHEMICAL REAGENTS TO PRODUCE DESIRED REACTION
  26. WHAT ARE THE STEPS TO THE GRAM STAIN
  27. WHAT IS AN ACID FAST STAIN
    • DIFFERENTIATES ACID-FAST BACTERIA (PINK) FROM NON-ACID-FAST BACTERIA (BLUE)
    • CELL WALLS OF ACID-FAST BACTERIA CONTAIN MYCOLIC ACID WHICH HOLDS FAST TO THE DYE (CARBOL FUSCHIN) WHEN WASHED WITH AN ACID ALCOHOL DECOLORIZER
  28. WHAT IS AN ENDOSPORE STAIN
    • SIMILAR TO THE ACID FAST STAIN IN THAT A DYE IS FORCED BY HEAT INTO RESISTANT BODIES CALLED SPORES OR ENDOSPORES
    • DISTINGUISHES BETWEEN SPORES AND VEGETATIVE CELLS
    • IDENTIFIES GENUS Bacillus AND Clostridium
  29. WHAT IS CAPSULE STAINING
    • USED TO OBSERVE THE MICROBIAL CAPSULE, AN UNSTRUCTURED PROTECTIVE LAYER SURROUNDING THE CELLS OF SOME BACTERIA AND FUNGI
    • NEGATIVELY STAINED WITH INDIA INK
  30. WHAT IS FLAGELLAR STAINING
    • USED TO REVEAL TINY, SLENDER FLAGELLA
    • FLAGELLA ARE ENLARGED BY COATING THEM AND THEN STAINING THEM

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