Biology Chapter 12

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Biology Chapter 12
2013-02-06 21:14:50
Biology Chapter 12

Biology Chapter 12
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  1. the process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of the bacteria.
  2. A type of virus that infects bacteria
  3. the nearly perfect fit between A-T and C-G
    Base pairing
  4. Chargaff's Rule
    [A]=[T]    [G]=[C]
  5. the partner of Adenine
  6. the partner of Guanine
  7. the process of copying DNA prior to cell division. Occurs during the 'S'phase
  8. An enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA.
    DNA Polymerase
  9. An enzyme that breaks down the hydrogen bonds in DNA. It 'unzips' the DNA.
  10. DNA at the tips of the chromosomes
  11. An enzyme that adds short, repeated DNA sequences to the telomeres. In rapidly dividing cells, such as stem cells, it helps to prevent genes from being damaged or lost during replication.
  12. By observing bacterial transformation, Avery and other scientists discovered that the nucleic acid DNA stores and transmits genetic information from one generation to the next.
  13. Hershey and Chase's experiment with bacteriophages confirmed Avery's results, convincing many scientists that DNA was the genetic material found in genes - not just in viruses and bacteria but in all cells.
  14. The DNA that makes up genes must be capable of storing, copying, and transmitting the genetic information in the cell.
  15. DNA is a nucleic acid made up of nucleotides joined into long strands or chains by covalent bonds
  16. The clues in Franklin's X-ray pattern enabled Watson and Crick to build a model of DNA that explained the specific structure and properties of DNA.
  17. The double helix model explains Chargaff's rule of base pairing and how the two strands of DNA are held together.
  18. DNA polymerase is an enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA.
  19. Replication in most prokaryotic cells starts from a single point and proceeds in two directions until the entire chromosome is copied.
  20. In eukaryotic cells replication may begin at dozens or even hundreds of places on the DNA's molecule, proceeding in both directions until each chromosome is completely copied.
  21. nitrogenous bases that have 2 rings and are called 'Purines'.
    Adenine and Guanine
  22. nitrogenous bases that have 1 ring and are called 'Pyrimidines'.
    Cytosine and Thymine
  23. The building blocks of DNA are
  24. nucleotides in DNA are made up of three basic components:
    • a sugar called Deoxyribose
    • a phosphate
    • and a nitrogenous base
  25. in DNA,----- can be joined in any order
  26. The nucleotides in DNA are joined by 
    Covalent Bonds
  27. Who used X-ray diffraction studies to reveal the double helix structure of DNA.
    Rosalind Franklin
  28. Why is important for DNA to store information
    the genetic material stores information needed by every living organism
  29. why is it important for DNA to copy its information
    before a cell divides its genetic information must be copied.
  30. Why is it important for DNA to transmit its information
    When a cell divides each daughter cell must receive a complete copy of the genetic information. 
  31. Which structure of DNA allows it to store information
    The sequence of the covalent bonds
  32. Which structure of DNA allows it to copy info
    The base pairs
  33. Which structure of DNA allows it to transmit info
    The Hydrogen Bonds
  34. What did Fredrick Griffith conclude
    he concluded that bacteria contains a molecule that can be transfer genetic info from cell to cell.
  35. What did Oswald Avery conclude
    he concluded that the molecule Griffith discovered is DNA
  36. What did Hershey and Chase conclude
    They concluded that the genetic material was DNA not a protein.