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Definition of Cytology
The study of cellular structure and function.
What are the two main classes of cells that the body contains?
Sex cells and somatic cells.
Sex cells (also called germ or reproductive cells) are:
Somatic cells include:
All other cells in the human body.
The outer boundary of the cell (also called the cell membrane).
Functions of the
- acts as a physical barrier
Regulation of exchange with the environment
-ions and nutrients enter
-wastes eliminated and cellular products released
Sensitivity to the environment
- first part of the cell affected by changes in the composition, concentration or pH of the extracellular fluid
- anchors cells and tissues
- toward watery environment
Hydrophobic fatty-acid tails
- inside membrane
-Acts as a barrier to ions and water--soluble compounds
A watery medium that surrounds a cell. The plasma membrane separates cytoplasm from this fluid.
Fluid material that is located inside the cell and surrounding the nucleus. Cytoplasm contains many more proteins than extracellular fluid.
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The Cellular Level of Organization