A & P

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A & P
2013-02-08 17:10:33
Chapter Three

The Cellular Level of Organization
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  1. Definition of Cytology
    The study of cellular structure and function.
  2. What are the two main classes of cells that the body contains?
    Sex cells and somatic cells.
  3. Sex cells (also called germ or reproductive cells) are:
    • Sperm for males
    • Oocytes for females.
  4. Somatic cells include:
    All other cells in the human body.
  5. Plasma Membrane
    The outer boundary of the cell (also called the cell membrane).
  6. Functions of the Plasma Membrane:
    • Physical Isolation- acts as a physical barrier
    • Regulation of exchange with the environment-
    • -ions and nutrients enter
    • -wastes eliminated and cellular products released
    • Sensitivity to the environment- first part of the cell affected by changes in the composition, concentration or pH of the extracellular fluid
    • Structural support- anchors cells and tissues
  7. Phospholipid Bilayer
    • Hydrophilic heads- toward watery environment
    • Hydrophobic fatty-acid tails- inside membrane
    • -Acts as a barrier to ions and water--soluble compounds
  8. Extracellular Fluid
    A watery medium that surrounds a cell.  The plasma membrane separates cytoplasm from this fluid.
  9. Cytoplasm
    Fluid material that is located inside the cell and surrounding the nucleus.  Cytoplasm contains many more proteins than extracellular fluid.