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For each of the neo-Freudians the main ideas-
liabilities of Freudian Theory: Note three points of
- 1.) Against the Freudian emphasis on early childhood: against that adult personality is formed almost by experiences in the
- first 5 to 6 years of life. (later experiences are also important.) Erik Erikson in particular believed that personality continues to develop into old age.
- 2.) The emphasis on instincts: instinctual
- sources of personality, he failed to recognize the important social and cultural forces that shape us. Freud saw the differences in personality between men and women and believed it was from genetics. Karen Horney in particular argued that the culture we grow up in play a large role in creating these
- 3.) The general negative tone: argues that he
- concentrated on the dark side of human personality. Others described it by making it not so depressing. Freud said people were largely controlled by instincts and unconscious forces.
Adler: His main concepts (individual psychology)—
against Freud, left group started his
- -Striving for superiority-big difference from Freud is description of human motivation. Freud described it in terms of sexual and aggressive themes, Adler described it as a single motivating force called striving for superiority. Begins with feelings of inferiority. Once the weak helpless child realized their need from others they strive to overcome their sense of inferiority. Achieving something moves us away from our feelings of inferiority. Excess inferiority makes them feel helpless and they run away from challenges. Express striving for superiority through social interest. Only reach goals for the welfare of others, keep society working. A striving that originates from the infant’s helplessness and dependence on others.
- that Adler did not describe the striving for superiority as a selfish
- orientation, but rather as striving that in channeled into “social
- interest”—involvement with the welfare of others.
- issues of birth order, what are the main qualities, according to Adler, of the
- -first-born-receive too much attention,
- pampered. After dethroned then feelings of inferiority. Often become perverts,
- criminals or drunks.
- born-Never pampered, develops a strong
- superiority striving. Highest achievers.
- born-Pampered by all members of the
- family, strong inferiority feelings because everyone is stronger and older than them. Remember that Adler himself was a middle child.
- -Be familiar with Adler’s biography, (he had
- inferiority in the classroom.) see how we can identify the connection between his own life and his theories. Note parental influence- first few years of life are very important
- in forming personality, he felt dethroned after younger brother was born, because mother’s attention was put on him. Pampering and neglect are two parent behaviors that almost certainly cause problems in child’s
- -Pampering-give children too much attention, over
- protect, this doesn’t allow child to be independent, may add to feelings of inferiority, and more personality problems. Allowing
- them to make mistakes is good for them in the long run. Neglect- too little attention, grow up cold and suspicious, uncomfortable with intimacy and may be uneasy with touching or
- closeness. how these affect the child. Note issue of
- inferiority complex-Likely to be overwhelmed with weakness and will run away from challenges rather than work them out.
- Note Jung’s biography.-created analytic
- psychology, most against Freudian. Reliance on ancient mythology and eastern religious views. When he was young
- he kept to himself because he didn’t think any one would understand the thoughts he was preoccupied with. In his teens he thought he was someone else. He spent 7 years in isolation to explore his own unconscious. After 7 years he came out with a new theory of personality.
- -What does he mean in the concept of the collective unconscious?- from attachment to mother,
- scared of dark to knowing there is a god. He says we all go through this, every culture, past and present. Why? Because of Collective unconscious. Collective Unconscious is thoughts and images that are difficult to bring into awareness., yet these thought were never push out of consciousness. We are born with it. We inherit psychic characteristics. Made up of Primordial images, described images in terms of a potential to respond to the world in a certain way. Also called archetypes. Mother, Father Wise old man etc. Said there are as many archetypes
- as there are typical situations in life.
- -Be familiar with the main archetypes, especially anima and animus, and the shadow.
- Anima-(an archetype)- the feminine side of the
- Animus- (an archetype) the masculine side of
- the female.
- The function of these two archetypes is to
- guide the selection of a romantic partner and the course of the subsequent
- relationship. The man want the women most like his feminine side.
- The Shadow (an archetype) contains the
- unconscious part of ourselves that is essentially negative, or to continue the metaphor, the dark side of our personalities. It is the evil side of humankind.
- Evidence for the collective unconscious—Eastern religions, dreams, etc.
- Jung’s Evidence is not hard data from a lab.
- He examined mythology, cultural symbols, dreams and the statements of schizophrenics. Primordial images are often expressed in dreams. People suffering from hallucinations are said to describe archetype-based images. Vultures in people dreams today, just like they did in ancient writings.
- Erikson: Worked at psychoanalytic center
- where Freud’s patients and friends children were. He became friends with the psychologists and began being trained. Never got a degree.
- -Erikson presented a new concept of the role of the ego. To Erikson the ego is a relatively powerful, independent part of personality, that works towards establishing one’s identity and satisfying a need for mastery over the environment. This approach is called ego psychology. Freud saw the ego as a mediator between the demands of the id, and the constraints of
- society. Erikson presented the ego as an independent agent, in charge of the establishment of a sense of identity.
- -Be familiar with the notion of development throughout the life-cycle., and the main challenge in each stage (“crisis”). Crisis-
- the eight forks (tuning points) in the path how we resolve the fork depends on personality development and influence.
- Personality develops throughout the person’s
- lifetime. 8 stages.
- Like a path but at 8 different stages
- throughout life we encounter a fork.
- 1.Basic Trust Versus Mistrust (1st
- Year of life)
- The child whos needs are met sense that the
- world is a good place and people are loving and caring. Others develop mistrust, they show lifelong pattern of estrangement and withdrawal, trusting neither themselves nor others.
- 2.Autonomy (2nd Year of life)
- Who they are relative to the world. Does it
- control them or them it? Come through this stage with a sense of autonomy. Feel powerful and independent. Personal mastery. Confident to take on challenges the life has in store. Pampering is bad for this stage, causes shame and doubt. Unsure of themselves and become dependent on others.
- 3.Initiative Versus Guilt (Children begin to interact with other children)
- Children must learn how to play and work with
- others and how to resolve the conflicts. Organizing games and social activities develop a sense of initiative. Learn how to set goals and overcome challenges. Children who fail to develop initiative come through this stage with feelings of guilt and resignition. Lack sense of purpose.
- 4.Industry Versus Inferiority (Children enter Elementary School)
- Find competition with other students for grades and popularity… Compare talents and abilities with other children their age. If succeed, feelings of competence grow that set them well on their way to becoming active and achieving in society. Failure leads to feelings of inadequacy and poor happiness. During this time before puberty that they develop industry and belief in our strengths and abilities or sense of inferiority and lack of appreciation of our talents.
- 5.Identity Versus Role Confusion (Teen)
- Time of rapid change and short preparation
- for adulthood. May be the most difficult time. Begin to ask “Who am I?” If answered successfully develop a sense of identity. Make decisions about religion and values. Appreciate themselves. Failure develops to find identity fall into role confusion.
- 6. Intimacy Versus Isolation (Young Adulthood)
- Developing intimate relationships. People who fail develop emotional isolation. May avoid emotional commitment.
- 7.Generativity Versus Stagnation (Middle Years of life)
- Develop concern for guiding the next generation. Develop sense of generativity. Fail could be suffering from a sense of stagnation (a feeling of emptiness and questioning one’s purpose in life. If
- no enjoyment of raising children the generally are dissatisfied with their lives. Failure to see the potential for personal growth in the development of their children is tragic for parent and child.
- 8.Ego Integrity Versus Despair (Old Age)
- Reflections of past experiences and the inevitability of life’s end cause us to develop either a sense of integrity or feelings of despair. Failure to develop integrity fall to despair.
- Horney:-not a student of Freud’s but learning it indirectly. Could not accept Freud’s views on women. Freud’s view was that men and women are born with different personalities. Horney argued that cultural and social forces are far more responsible than biology for some of the apparent differences.
- Female psychology- “womb envy”.-
- -The 3 neurotic tendencies.-One woman seems nice and
- then demands things. A man never says anything nice about people, now he is a successful businessman. A woman at
- work never socialized and now no one asks her to join them, she feels alone. All these examples are people who are neurotic. They are all trapped in self-defeating interpersonal styles. Freud explained neurosis as a fixated energy and unconscious battles between various aspects of personality. Horney pointed to disturbed interpersonal relationships during childhood. There are many ways to develop this through bad parenting, if child experiences this they lack a sense of personal worth, are afraid and unsure of how to deal with their parents, fear unjust punishment from their parents for reasons they can’t understand, feel insecure and inadequate, desperately want but fail to receive the warmth and support they need. They are confused, afraid and anxious. 3 interaction styles neurotics adapt in their efforts to avoid anxiety-provoking experiences. She called these styles moving toward people, moving against people, and moving away from people.
- -Moving Toward People- emphasize helplessness, depend on others, seeking affection and acceptance from their parents and caregivers. As adults they really need to be loved and accepted.
- May become attached to who ever is available. Believing in a relationship is better than loneliness and feeling unwanted. They don’t love, they cling.
- -Moving Against People-Fight. Some children
- find aggressiveness and hostility are the best ways to deal with a poor home environment. They are rewarded with fleeting sense of power and respect from classmates, but no real friends. The need to exploit others. This style is characterized by externalization, similar to Freud’s “projection”. These people
- learned that people are out to get what they want and are hostile.
- -Moving Away From People- Instead of interacting with others in a dependent or hostile manner, the child may simply tune out the world. “Who needs them?” Desire for privacy and self-sufficiency
- can be intense. Look for jobs with little interaction. Avoid affection, love, and friendship. Attachment might lead to pain, develop numbness to emotional experiences.
- -Feminine Psychology- Horney found herself in
- a man’s world. Freud’s “penis envy” Horney countered this male-flattering position with the concept if womb envy.- men’s envy of women’s ability to bear and nurse children. Men compensate for their ability to have children through achievements in other domains. Pointed out that Freud’s observations and writings took place when women were placed in inferior positions in society.